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DATELINE

Time

Events

4000 BC

4-3 millennium BC Ancient barrow (pit) archeological culture, formation of pra-Türks. Kurgans.

3450 BC

World's first cities appear along banks of Tigris and Euphrates. They make up Uruk culture, with principal city Uruk, Biblical Erech. This culture invents writing and lunar calendar, uses metals, develops medicine, builds monumental architecture.

3450 BC

In Uruk culture no unified government evolves, and they remain independent for almost one thousand years

3200 BC

Sumerians are making use of wheeled transportation

3100 BC

Cuneiform writing emerges in Mesopotamia. This form of writing, involving wedge-shaped characters, is used to record first epics in world history, including Enmerkar and Lord of Aratta and first stories about Gilgamesh

2700 BC

Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, rules city of Uruk, which has now grown to a population of more than 50,000. Gilgamesh is subject of many epics, including Sumerian "Gilgamesh and Enkidu in Nether World" and Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh"

2320 BC

Sargon conquers independent city-states of Sumer and institutes central government

2130 BC

Sumer regains its independence from Akkadian rule, though it does not revert back to independent city-states. At this time, Sumer is ruled from important city of Ur

2100 BC

Sumerian King List is written, recording all kings and dynasties ruling Sumer from earliest times. According to this list, Eridu is named as earliest settlement, a claim that seems to be confirmed by archeological evidence

2000 BC

2000-1600 BCE: Old Babylonian period begins after collapse of Sumer, probably due to increase in soil salt content thereby making farming difficult. Weakened by poor crops, lack of surplus goods, Sumerians are conquered by Amorites, situated in Babylon

2000 BC

Consequently, center of civility shifts north. Though they preserve most of Sumerian culture, Amorites introduce their Semitic language, an early ancestor to Hebrew, into region

1900 BC

Epic of Gilgamesh is redacted from Sumerian sources and written in Semitic language. Thus, though Gilgamesh was Sumerian, his Epic is Babylonian

1750 BC

Semitic group of nomads migrate from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt. They are led by a caravan trader, Patriarch Abraham, who will become father of Israel nation

1766 BC

Eventually recorded Chinese traditions tell of Kia, 17th member of old Chinese Hia dynasty, dethroned due to evil ways. His son Sunni went with 500 members of his Hia nationality to Hun relatives. Hia still has many common words with Altaic languages

1766 BC

Oldest Türkic words are in Chinese annual chronicles noting cultural and political events. Hsiung-nu words tanry, kut, byorü, ordu, tug, kylych etc are oldest monuments of Türkish language. State rulers' endoethnonym is Hun, Türkic "man, male, people"

1763 BC

Amorite King, Hammurabi, conquers Sumer. He writes Code of Laws containing 282 rules including principles of "an eye for an eye" and "let buyer beware". It is one of first codes of law in world history, predated only by Laws of Lipit-Ishta

1750 BC

Hammurabi empire lasts for another one hundred and fifty years, until 1600, when Kassites (Kas=Türk. ‘mountain’), a non-Semitic people, conquer most of Mesopotamia with help of light chariot warfare

1500 BC

15-9 centuries BC Frame culture. Kurgans.

1500 BC

First evidence of widespread organized pastoral nomadic economy in Bronze Age Andronovo culture (mid-second to early first millennium B.C.), found throughout steppe. Settlements of up to forty rectangular, semi-subterranean dwellings found at Atasu, Karkaralinsk and Alekseevka in Kazakhstan. In Dzhezkazgan and Zyryanovskfound are mines from this period

1390 BC

First elements of Hun state in highlands of Ordos

1200 BC

First Hun state in highlands of Ordos

1200 BC

Cimmerians (Turk. Kam-er, Kim-er - "river man", akin to "Suv-ar", "Bulak-ar" ("Bolkar, Bulgar"), "Sub-ar", "Suv-ar",  "Shum-er") begin to occupy Pontic Steppe

800 BC

Assirian chronicles report about Cimmerian invasion to countries of Transcaucasus and Near East. Beginning of Scythian domination in East-European steppes. Assyrians called Cimmerians Gimirrai (Hebrew Gomer; Gen. XI)

800 BC

Plinius of Scythian origins: "Ultra sunt Scytharum populi, Persae illos Sacas in universum appellavere a proxima gente, antiqui Arameos"

800 BC

Hesiod, 7th Century BC, writes: Inventors of bronze working were Scythians. Early Mesopotamian name of metal Zubur, indicates that northern Mesopotamian Subartuan's or a people of region were indeed inventors of process.

800 BC

Herodotus on origin of Scythians from area of eastern Anatolia: "nomad Scythians living in Asia (once only Near East) were attacked by Sarmatians and were forced to cross Araxes (modern Turkish Aras) and wander to land of Cimmerians."

800 BC

Greeks associated invention of iron working with northern Mesopotamian and Anatolian Scythian tribes like Kalybs tribe which gave steel its name in many early European languages. In time Sarmatians and Yazig absorb Kalybs.

800 BC

Kalybs are absorbed by Sarmatians and Yazig, via Yazig cavalry taken by Romans to Britain and were foundation of King Arthur myths of Ex-Calibur, and sword myths, which are all early Anatolian traditions.

800 BC

Sword myths traditions are all early Anatolian, are also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst early Scythians.

722 BC

Pi-van moves capital to the East to Loi or Tsyaju, supposedly because capital with some Chjou territory was under "barbarians" because of disturbances. Later Tsin rulers Syan-gun and Ben-gun captured this territory. Only a part of land returned to Chjou

710 BC

In late 8th century BC Cimmerian and Scythian troops fought against Assyrian king Sargon II, and at end of 6th century BC conflict arose between Scythians and Achaemenian King Darius I

700 BC

Scythians replace Cimmerians in Steppe region

700 BC

Cimmerian tombs of their kings were shown on Tyras (Dniestr), and on south-east another group threatened Assyrians

700 BC

Scyths (Assyrian Ashguzai, Heb. Ashkenax, fr. Türk. As - “nomad”, Güz, Kish, Kiji - “tribe, people”) whom Assyrians welcomed as allies and used against Cimmerians, against Medes and even against Egypt. Hence references to Scyths in Hebrew prophet (Jer. IV.3, VI. 7).

685 BC

685 - 643 BC Rule in Tsi of Huan - hun

679 BC

Huan - hun organizes a congress of rulers inTsi, taking that right from Chjou

659 BC

659 - 621 Rule of Mu-hun in Tsin

653 BC

Scythian interregnum in Median Dynasty history. Herodotus dating of this event remains uncertain but traditionally it is seen as falling between reigns of Phraortes and Cyaxares and as covering years 653 to 625 BC.

633 BC

Scythian invasion to Transcaucasus and Fore-Asia.

600 BC

F. Altheim "Das Alte Iran" writes that Iranian Avesta's most archaic texts, Gathas, are still not understood by today's linguists.

600 BC

R. Stiehlel writes, it is quite obvious that language of old Avesta is closely tied to ancient Altaic languages. Since newcomers to Iran joined older settled inhabitants often associated with Scythians, Türks and Finno-Ugrians, and borrowed much

600 BC

Many of local people were Iranianized, today we call certain Scythian nations as Iraninan in origin. Much of Persian literature in Persepolis is not in Iranian but in aboriginals' Elamite language that up until last century was also called Scythian

600 BC

About 500-600 BC Hungarians moved south to steppes, where, according to linguistic evidence, they took animal breeding from Chuvash people, as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture in Hungarian language are of Chuvash origin

521 BC

Darius I "the Great" succeeds Cambyses as emperor of Persia. He engages in many large building programs, including a system of roads. In addition, he institutes first postal system

520 BC

6th cent. BC Invasion of Transoxiana by Achaemenids of Persia under Darius I and Cyrus

516 BC

Darius' expedition (516 - 513 BC) against Scythians in N. Pontic is described in great detail by Herodotus, who provided first and perhaps most penetrating description of Europian great nomad empire

510 BC

Hecataeus (6th century B.C.) map showing Scyths

512 BC

Scythian war with army of Persian king Darius I Hystaspos invading Scythia

500 BC

Herodotus mentioned Sarmatians living to north of Scythians of N. Pontic regions and not close to their old homelands along Araxes, Sarmatians must have been a long time thorn in Scythian side.

500 BC

Herodotus: "Anyone who does business with Scyths (Sakae) needs seven interpreters speaking seven languages"

500 BC

Scythians who make this journey (via Budini (Beçen/Peçenek, Budun=Türk. “clan, nation, people”), Thyssagetae (Tis-Saka-it =Türk. outer Sakas), Iyrcae (Yürük=Türk. nomad), Argippaeans (Arik-bay=Türk. pure+ bay=rich man) communicate with inhabitants by means of seven interpreters and seven languages.

500 BC

Sarmate (Sauromatae, Sarma-te=Türk. ‘with sac’) speak language of Scythia, live W of Palus Maeotis (Azov Sea). W of Tanais (Don) and fifteen days' journey N of Sarmate, dwell Budini, "blue-eyed and bright red-haired", whose territory is thickly wooded with trees of every kind

500 BC

Persepolis inscription text is "Darius Hystapes (522-486) rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia [Sabir], Hunae."

450 BC

Herodotus World Map (ca. 450 B.C.) shows Agathirsi (Agach-ir=Türk. forest+people), Scythians and Massagets, Malanchleni, Budini and Geloni, Thissagets and Jurcae

450 BC

In Issyk fifth-century B.C. Sak's kurgan in town in Kazakhstan near Lake Issyk (Issiq), in a royal tomb, in 1970 is found a flat silver drinking cup jar with Türkic ‘Issyk’ Inscription in Türkic alphabet, attesting that Sak-Massagetan tribes spoke Türkic

450 BC

In Issyk kurgan all human skeletons found in graves showed race characteristics very similar to today's Anatolian Turks, with no trace of Mongoloid features at all (Larousse)

400 BC

Sarmatians take leadership over Scythians.

350 BC

Macedonian burials in kurgans

339 BC

Macedonian raids to North in 339,335,331, 313 è 292 against Scythians and Celts. Celtic alliance with Scythians evidenced by Celtic artifacts in Scythian sites

339 BC

Defeat of Scythians led by king Ateios in battle with army of Philip of Macedonia. Death of Atheios.

338 BC

Macedonian barbarian Philip II defeated united Greek states at battle of Chaeronea in beginning of August 338 BC and appointed himself "Commander of Greeks"

336 BC

Philip II of Macedonia (382-336 BC), king of Macedonia, is buried in kurgan per Macedonian custom. Greeks viewed Macedonians as barbarians (non-Greeks), and consequently treated them in same manner in which they treated all non-Greeks.

331 BC

In battle of Gaugamela with Alexander Macedonian, Darius had Scyths (35K Cavalry) and Bactrians in his army

318 BC

First historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC

310 BC

Sirac(i), a Sarmatian tribe occupied Kuban region north of Caucasus shortly before 300 B.C. (Tr. Sarig=yellow, blond, Sirs are ansestors of Cumans/Kipchaks)

300 BC

Türkic language splits into 2 branches, Oguz (Eastern) and Ogur (Kipchak) (Western). Oguz 'z', 'y,i', (Oguz, yilan, Yaik) Ogur 'r', 'd, dj', (Ogur, djulan, Djaik)

300 BC

From Chinese sources Alans are listed as one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favoured by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C.

300 BC

In 300 BC Neapolis Scythia In Crimea (Simpheropol area) was capital of Royal Scyths

300 BC

Earliest occurrence of Parthian name in form of Aparnoi or Parnoi in Turan. According to Armenian historians who served Armenian dynasty of Parthian origin, Parthian Arsac who founded dynasty was of white Hun (Ephtalite) origin

290 BC

Hun state consists of 24 clans, some of them: Kuyan (Jack rabbit) Lan (Orchard) Suybu (West Tribe) Suylyanti Tsulin Taychi Uyti Tsetszuy…

290 BC

Hun state leader is titled Great Shanüy - "Chenli gydu shanüy" - "Son of endless sky" Succession is from father to eldest son.

247 BC

Start of Parthian Dynasty (ab. 247 B.C.-A.D. 226) which was one of longest in history

246 BC

In Antiochus 11th year Parthians shook off Macedonians, and Ephtalite king's son is new ruler. All nations of Eastern and Northern Asia accepted his rule. King Arsac had four sons. One received Ephtalites, second Hindus, third Parthians, fourth Armenians.

231 BC

Parthian Arsac, lost to Persian king Selecud and retreats amongst Aspasiac Scythians, near Aral Sea. With their aid he reconquers his empire

230 BC

Touman (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), of clan Suylyanti with a bull totem establishes Hunnic Empire

214 BC

Chinese ruler Si Huang Ti (259-210 BC) builds Great Chinese Wall against attacks of Huns

209 BC

Touman died (Tumen, 240 - 210 BC), accession to throne of Maotun (Batur, 210 - 174 BC), founder of Hun Empire. Expansion of Hun Empire.

204 BC

HUN EMPIRE

204 B.C - 216 A.D

Founder - Mete (Bagatir, Maotun, Batur)

Area - At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea, (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

200 BC

Emergence of Huns (Hsiung-nu) on western borders of China.

200 BC

A strong stone and mortar wall surrounds capital Neapolis Scythia of Royal Scyths in 200 B.C. Of note is a mausoleum that contains seventy-two richly furnished tombs, which are probably representative of royal Scythian house

177 BC

Mete Khan (Maotun) letter to Chinese government describes that 26 nations are in Türkish sate and all of them became "nations stretching bow-string", or Huns

174 BC

Kokkhan (174-161 BC), Huns (Hsiung-nu) attack Tocharians (Yüeh-chih), driving them from Gansu

161 BC

Kunkhan (161 - 126 BC)

150 BC

Rise of Hun Empire's puts pressure on territory of Iran dislodging many Scythian nations who were pushed west, including Saka-Uraka whose kings' title was Makar.

150 BC

Migration of a part of Sarmats (Bulgarians) from Northern Caucasus to Cis-Caucasus.

141 BC

141-128 BC Tochars (Yüeh-chih), fleeing from Huns (Hsiung-nu), overrun Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.

126 BC

El Chishi (126 - 114 BC)

124 BC

Asi (Yazig), Pasiani (Budini/Beçen/Peçenek), Tocharian, Sabir (Sabaroi) tribes break into Sogdiana and Baktria. In next five years two Parthian emperors loose their lives in wars. They also later conquer Sakauraka tribe.

121 BC

Chinese, under General Ho Chu-ping, defeat Huns (Hsiung-nu).

114 BC

Ovi (114 - 105 BC)

103 BC

Tribe Pu-ku/Bu-gu is repeatedly mentioned in different Chinese sources from 103 BC up to 8-th century AD. They inhabit W and E parts of Central Asia, N and NW of Tien-Shan, Semirech'e and W of rivers Syr Darya and Amu Darya.

103 BC

One of tribal lords of Pu-ku - Sofu sulifa Kenan Bain, bears title sulifa, attested later among Dagestan Bulgarians.

100 BC

Diodorus Siculus, 1st c. B.C. Scythians "lived in very small numbers at Araks River....they gained country in mountains up to Caucasus, in lowland on coast of Ocean (Caspian Sea) and Meot Lake (Azov Sea) and other territories up to Tanais River.

100 BC

"They won for themselves a country "behind Tanais River up to Egyptian Nile River" (Diodorus II, 43).

75 BC

Scythian nomads from Central Asia conquered Kabul River Valley, with Taxila and Pushkalavati as their twin capital cities in Gandhara, from Greek kings of Bactria

56 BC

First split of Hun Empire into Western and Eastern branches Qoghoshar (Khukheniy I) (56 - 36 BC)

54 BC

Chinese chronicles mention Ogurs as separate people in vicinity of Edisu

53 BC

Parthian nomads from east of Caspian Sea conquered Kabul River Valley, with Taxila and Pushkalavati as their twin capital cities in Gandhara, from Scythians. After defeating Greeks in 53 BC, Parthians ruled northern Pakistan area. Parthians promoted art and religion, developed Gandhara school of art with Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian art influences

51 BC

Huns (Hsiung-nu) split into two hordes, with Eastern Horde subject to China.

50 BC

Dionisios Periegetos says, already in 1st century BC, Huns dominate over all Caspian lands

6 AD

Illirian rebelion (6-9 AD). Introduction of Roman provincial rule in Pannonia

20

Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20): Massagetae, [meaning hero-tribe] who also live in Balk are Kush. According to Armenians Baktria is land of Kush and Balkh is its capital city, where great Arsac set up his throne.

20

Strabo: Parthian Scythians became Persian and Armenian kings from which even Byzantines received capable rulers. In Armenia Arsac dynasty ruled for about 600 years.

21

Rebellion in Thrace and Gaul

35

35­36 AD Alanian participation in Ibero-Parphian war on side of Iberia.

48

WESTERN HUN EMPIRE

48 - 216 A.D

Founder - Panu

Area - area over present Central Asia

50

Kujula Kadphises unites (Yüeh-chih) to establish Kushan Empire, stretching from Persia to Transoxiana to Upper Indus.

50

1st century AD (first half) Alans (Alani =Tr. ‘field’) mentioned by written sources of Ancient Rome (?) for first time.

50

Apostle Paul (Saul) begins spreading Christianity to the gentile world. Start of Christianity as a world event

64

Kushana king Kujula, ruler of Central Asian nomads, overthrew the Parthians and took over Gandhara. Kushans extended their rule into northwest India and Bay of Bengal, south into Bahawalpur and short of Gujrat, and north till Kashghar and Yarkand. They made their winter capital at Purushapura, City of Flowers, now called Peshawar, and their summer capital north of Kabul

72

Alans invade Transcaucasus

78

78-144 Reign of King Kanishka over Kushan Empire (territory extended to include Tarim Basin), with Buddhism as dominant religion.

93

Western (Northern) Huns suffer a major defeat from Mongols (Hsien-pi) and start westward migration (93-c.380).

97

Chinese armies reach Caspian Sea.

106

Jornand recalls that Nocopol on Danube was founded by Trayan after victory over Sarmats

124

Dionysius Periegetes (the guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii

124

Dionisus Periegetes (end of 1st - beginning of 2nd c.) maps and talks that on Northwestern side of Caspian sea live Scythians, Uns, Caspians, Albanians, and Kaduses, of Huns living next to Caspian Sea Sak (Gr. Sacae)=Türkco-Persian saka=water carrier

128

Kanishka, the greatest of Kushans, ruled from 128 to 151 AD

135

Alanian campaign in Transcaucasus and Media

139

Dionisus Periegetes: Huns living next to Dniepr in Eastern Europe. Calls them Khuni (Chuni) and Suni. (Khuni is clan/national designation while Suni is probably from Senü, their ruler)

139

Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Tr. Agach-ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae (Tr. Bash-t-er 'head people') and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) live Huns

150

Mid. 2nd century Alans defeated by Roman army at Olvia (Olbia)

155

End of Huns as a major power in inner Asia.

200

ca. AD 200-370: Invasions by Goths., who colonize and mix with local populations. Tervingi branch consolidated their realm between Dniestr and Danube, and became known as 'Visigoths'. Greutungi dominated west of Dniestr and became known as Ostrogoths

213

Roman war with German and Danubian tribes. Caracalla defeats Alemans

214

Edessa becomes a Roman colony

216

End of HUN EMPIRE

204 B.C - 216 A.D

Founder - Mete (Bagatir)

Area - At At north, Siberia; south, Tibet - Kashmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

216

End of WESTERN HUN EMPIRE

48 - 216 A.D

Founder - Panu

Area - area over present Central Asia

226

End of Parthian Dynasty (ab. 247 B.C.-A.D. 226), it was one of longest in history

234

Roman war against Alemans. Maximin, a Thracian, is proclaimed Emperor by Pannonian army (ñ 235 to 238)

236

Roman war against Sarmatians and Dacians

236

Gothic invasion across Danube and invasion of Dacian Carps

260

In 60's of 3rd c, Caucasian Huns served in Persian army

266

Unification of China. Hun rebellion is suppressed

275

EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE

275 - 454 A.D

Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars

Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N.Hungary to Byzantine Empire

(Area - 4,000,000 Km2)

290

In 90's of 3rd c, Armenian sources write about Hun's wars in Trans-Caucasus (N.Caucasus )

293

Sasanid (Persian) inscriptions dated by 293 mention name of one of Türkic khakans from Caucasus

300

Tele left early Huns Horde, keeping patriarchal relations and nomadic life. They were not Sinadized. They move in steppes on carts with high wheels.

300

Tele have 12 clans, each governed by aldermen, all living in peace

300

Genealogy: Gaogüys =>Tele =>15 tribes =>

1 Uange (Uygurs)

2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)

3 Kibi

4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)

5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)

6 Dolange (Telengits)

7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)

8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)(Uygurs)

9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)

10 Hun

11 Sygye (Uygurs)

12 Husye 13 Higye

14 Adye(Eduz)

15 Baysi (Barsil)

300

Sirs and Türks live at Ordos

300

Bulgars and Khazars are blood relatives, with a common or similar language.

301

In 4-7c. Seyanto (Sir + Yanto) occupied steppes between Mongol Altai and E. Tianshan

304

Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China Khan Empire northern part and established a sequence of kingdoms. Toba tribe led predominantly Chinese population.

309

Hun's raid eased by rebellion of (Chinese) people against officials

309

Intrigues of Emperor Huai-di against Sym Yuy. Aliance with Tabgach Khan Ilu against Huns

311

Defeat of Sym Yuy. Fall of Loyan, Huns take Chanan

312

Small Syanbinian tribe with Khans from Muyun family moved from southern Manjuria to west and settled in proximity of lake Kukunor. They fought Tibetans successfully and Tobases unsuccessfully.

312

Syanbinian tribe with Muyun Khans were organized into kingdom Togon and became vassals of Empire Wey.

312

Chinese displace Huns from Chanan

320

Muyun Khoy becomes Great Shanuy

321

Tsu Ti dies, and Chinese advance against Huns stopped

325

China loses lands north of river Huai

334

First mention of Bulgars, they live in basin of Tanais and Cuban

336

Beg. 4th c. Invasion of Armenia by Hun-Maskuts (Gr. Massagets), together with Sakas, led by king of Massagetae Sanesan (Tr. Sen-esen=you+storming (man))

336

Türkic names of Hun rulers

Karaton (kadadon= dress)

Mundjuk, Attila's father (bondjus = bead, tirquose)

Attila (Itil= birthplace, or Ata-il = father of country)

Illek, Attila's son (Il-Ek = country fortress)

Dengizik, Attila's son (Den(g)iz = Sea)

Irnek, Attila's son (=young soldier)

Aibars, Attila's uncle (= bars, lion)

Oktar, Attila's uncle (= )

Ary Kan (aryg-kan = beautiful quinn)

Basyk

Kursyk

Atakam

Eshkam

336

Türkic names of Hun rulers (cont'd)

Nation

Agacheri (Forrest people)

Shar (sary - ak, = yellow - white)

Ogur (Ok-gur = ten federates)

Potential link of ruling family with Asian Tankhu (king)

337

Hun' s vanguard reached Tanais, displaced Ostgoths, who displaced Visigoths and Sarmats into Roman territory. Death of Constantine the Great leads to formal division of Roman Empire into Western and Eastern Empires

338

Tele tribes subjugated by Tobases Khan. They live west of Ordos

350

Ügülüy from Syanbinian cavalry organizes a band and joints neighboring nomads.

350

Tele are living of animal husbandry, in a weak confederation of tribes, fighting for their independence.

354

Earliest known European record about Bulgarians is "Anonymous chronograph", a list of tribes and peoples in Latin. He mentiones a certain 'Ziezi ex quo Vulgares'.

360

Huns cross Volga and attack Alans. Part of Alans retreat to N. Caucasus, part is absorbed in Hun's Horde, part retreat to N. Donets. Most likely, after conquest a part of Bulgars joins Huns, and a part remains

360

Uhuans and Syanbins become subjects of Fu Tsyan II, who moves them beyond Chinese Wall

363

In 363, Armenian, Roman and Persian authors write about necessity of fortifying Caucasian passages, especially Derbent passage, against Huns, who make repeated raids and campaigns against Persians, Armenians and peoples of Middle East

364

Goth's invasion of Thrace

367

Valens twice crossed Danube with his troops and devastated much of Goths' territory

370

Huns defeat Goths (Germans)

370

Romans hired Hunnic warriors as auxiliary troops and paid them a yearly tribute, partly for services rendered and partly as a bribe to keep them from raiding provinces

370

Huns were a genetic hybrid between Mongoloid, Altaic (Siberian), and Central Asian Türkic stocks. Typical Hunno-Bulgars probably had a squarish face, high cheekbones, and slanting eyes. Term 'Bulgar' comes from Türkic 'bulgha' = 'to mix'. These nomadic horsemen groups were mainly composed of As - Ossetians, Eastern Antes - Iranian-Slavic blend, Khazars - a mixed Türkic group, and a people known as Sarmatians, an Iranian group.

370

Huns defeat Ostrogoths. Death of Germanarix. Vinitari (Vitimir?) becomes new Ostrogothic king. Ostrogoths retire to Lower Dniepr. Geruls and Burgundians part of Ostrogoths.

370

370-376 War between Alans and Goths.

370

Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais, and N. Caspian steppes. Alans who live there join Huns.

370

Guylüchoy, successor to Ügülüy, organized a horde, move along all Khalka to Khingan, subordinated to Tobas Khans, paid tribute in horses, sable and martens.

370

Guylüchoy life and organization are primitive and organized by regiments of 1000 men. No changes for 200 years. All efforts went to rob neighbors.

370

2 migrations of Bulgarians from Caucasus to Armenia. 1st during Armenian ruler Vaharshak, immigrants of Vh' ndur Bulgar Vund, lands named Vanand.

370

2nd migration during Armenian ruler Arshak, disturbances ... in land of Bulgars, many of whom migrated and settled south of Kokh, because of expansion of Huns in E European steppes

372

After crushing, or compelling alliance of, various nations Alpilzuri, Alcidzuri, Himari, Tuncarsi, Boisci, Huns reached Alani, Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns in advance to Europe

374

Retreating to Dnieper Ostrogoths fight with Ants living there. After a number of battles and defeats, Ostrogoths captured Antian King Boz (Bus, Bog?) and executed him

375

Jordanes, XLVIII, 249. Battle between Alans under Balamber and Ostrogoths at river Erac (present Tiligul). After death of Vitimir, young Vidirix bacame a King. Alatey and Safrac ruled under his name. Ostrogoths retreated to Dniestr.

375

Ammianus Marcellinus: After his (Hermanaric) departure, Vitimir was made a King, and resisted Halans for some time… But after many defeats he suffered, he was subdued by arms and died in battle

376

Huns captured Atilkuzu (Bessarabia). Alans remained in Dacia. Vestgoths and Ostrogoths, defeated by Huns and Alans, retreated to Danube.

376

Vestgoths and Ostrogoths Goths fled from Huns, asked help from Emperor Valens, who allowed them cross Danube to guard borders, and entered Roman Empire. Poor control of crossing, extractions by officials caused rebellion. Rome faced Gothic invasion.

376

Goths who crossed Danube became Visigoths, and Goths who remained behind and became subjects of Huns were designated Ostrogoths. Ostrogoths who cross Danube joined Vestgoths. Entire Alaric's Visigothic population is estimated to be around 100,000 people

377

Hunnish-Bulgarian association during period of Hunnish hegemony in Central Europe. Attilla's combat power consists mostly from mounted Bulgarian troops. Attila' dynasty is continued for Bulgars.

377

A detachment of Huns crossed Kerch straight from Caucasus, displaced Goths in Crimea to center of peninsula, and went to join main army in Dniestr estuary

378

At a victory celebration Bulümar (360??---378) dies, his son Alyp-bi becomes Khan of Huns (378-390)

378

Oldest son of Hun's Bulümar (Balamber) Alyp-bi defeats Sadumes (Scandinavians), crossed Danube, and with Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Alans defeats 80K Byzantium army at Andrianopol

378

Valens acted alone and engaged a massive Gothic force of estimated 200,000 warriors near Adrianople. Result was a catastrophe, Valens army was completely annihilated, he perished (9 August AD 378). His body was never found

380

Western (Northern) Huns in westward migration (93-c.380) take possession of lower Tanais river valley and north of Meotida

380

New Roman Emperor Theodosius settles Gothic problem diplomatically. Goths become federates, and Alans move north.

380

380-395 Alans clear Dacia and Atilkuzu from Vestgoths, Taifals, Gepids, Burgunds and other peoples. Huns went to Pontic steppes

386

Creation of Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire

390

Tele move north, to Djungaria, and spread in West Mongolia to Selenga.

390

Alyp-bi (378-390) dies, is buried on Kuyantau mountain (current Kiev) under Baltavar stone with Ψ sign. His son Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk) becomes Khan of Huns (390-434)

395

Hun campaign in Cis-Caucasus and even raid Syria. Alans, Ostrogoths and Geruls, retreated earlier to Cis-Caucasus, subordinate to Huns

395

Rebellion of Alarics and Visigoths

400

Syanbian language, ancient Mongolian, becomes inter-tribe language for Türk's allied tribes. "Türk" = "strong", "powerful".

400

Alans and Bulgars live between Itil and Don

400

In Danube area, evidently, arrived Huns. They killed Byzantian federate Gain, expelled by rebels from Constantinople.

400

Arab and Persian authors mention town Varachan (Belenjer), capital of Hun state, in Sulak valley near Upper Chir-Ürt in Dagestan. Later authors refer to Balanjar as native land of Khazars.

400

Ancestors of Khazars among Huns called selves Basils (Bas, head; il/el, people--ruling people)

402

Ruler of Western Empire Stilihon allied with Huns and Alans, who help Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes.

405

New help by Huns and Alans to Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes (Suewes).

406

Alans join Vandals in invasion to Gallia (modern France).

406

Radagais leads Vandals, Suebis, Kuads, Burgonds, Saxsons, Almants, is captured at Fiesol by Huns under Ulduz (?-410?), supposedly, ruler of right, eastern wing of Hunnish army, allied with Romans, and is executed (Aug 406). Vandals cross Rein, retreat to Gaul

409

Alans and Vandals moving from Gaul to Spain.

409

Uldiz, ruler of right, eastern wing spread from Balkhash to Volga, tells to ambassador of Byzantium, governor of Thrace, "I can capture all lands to sunset"

410

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday died (?-410), his brother Khulüy (410-414) becomes Khan.

410

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Shelun Deuday unlimitedly controlled steppes from Khingan to Altai. Tele were subjugated. Central Asian Huns, after winning battle at river Ili, recognized suzerainty of Syanbinian Jujans and bought peace by submissiveness.

410

Huns attack Roman Empire and sack Rome. Huns introduce pants to Roman Empire, which replace traditional togas

410

After death of Uldiz (?-410?) Karaton (410-422?) becomes Khagan of Huns. In 412 Karaton receives Byzantian ambassador Olimpiodors. Karaton rules mostly eastern part of empire. No information till 422

412

Byzantian embassy to Huns in Pontic area

414

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Khulüy (410-414) died, his cousin Datan (414-?) becomes Khan

418

Syanbinian Jujanes penetrated Tarbagatay area

420

Toba tribe unites Northern China into a kingdom known under Chinese name of Empire Wey

420

Huns settle in middle Danube. Rulers were Roila (Rugila), Mundzuk and Oktar

420

WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE

420 - 552 A.D

Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)

Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)

420

Ephtalites were divided into White Chions and Red Chions

424

Jujan Khan Datan (?-424) with 60K cavalry invades Empire Wey. In 425 Tobases of Empire Wey expel them to behind Gobi

430

Major campaign by Tabgach Empire Wey army, under Emperor Tay-u-di (Toba Dao) disperses Syanbinian Jujanes. Datan disappears, leadership taken by his son Udi (430-445). Udi agrees to pay tribute to Empire Wey

430

Huns reach Rein. Yabgu Roila (Ruga) keeps friendly relations with Rome, lending troops to suppress Bagauds in Gaul

432

After Oktar, Ruga (432-437) becomes Hun Khagan

434

Akatzirs are subjects to Huns under Hunnish Khan Ruga (432-437)

434

Aybat (Eur. Mundzuk) (390-434) dies. His son Attila becomes Yabgu of W. Huns (Kara Bulgar) (434-445). His son Bleda becomes ruler of E. Huns (Ak Bulgar) (434-445).

434

Roman bishop of Margus crossed Danube and robbed royal Hun graves, stealing their burial treasures. War broke out

434

Attila forces Eastern Roman Empire to recognize the superiority of Huns. Constantinople gives many concessions in treaty of Margus: Hun merchants’ rights, military alliance conducts, the return of Hun fugitives, and increases tribute to 700 pounds of gold to be paid each year

434

Possibly during Byzantine campain Ruga (Rua, Roila, Rugila) dies (?-434), Atilla and his brother Bleda are elected, his nephew Attila becomes ruler of left (western) wing of empire

437

Syanbinian Jujanes under Udi resume attacks on Empire Wey. In 439 Empire Wey counterattacks, without decisive battle. In 440 Udi attacks border and flees. Then again in 445.

439

In 439 Tobases had victory over Huns and joined Khesi to Wey Empire, Khan Ashina with 500 families fled to Syanbinian Jujanes and settled south of Altai mountains and produced iron for Syanbinian Jujanes.

439

An horde of warlike Syanbinians retreated to Tibet from Khesi. Coming to a rich, but disunited country, Syanbinian leader attracted Kyans, i.e. occupied a dominating position between ever-hostile tribes.

439

In Tibet, descendants of Syanbinian leader had title Tsenpo, meaning in between King and Head of Government, supported by Syanbinians who are the only real force in country.

439

Huns stand in Dunkhuan and battle against Shanshan

440

Atilla has a full control in N. Caucasus. Treaty with Persian Shakh Yazdagar

440

Hephthalites (White Huns, later known in West as Avars) move south from Altai region to occupy Transoxiana, Bactria, Khurasan, and eastern Persia

441

Huns are again on Danube border, took Singidun (Belgrad)

442

Ultimatum by Atilla to Theodosius II, who rejects it.

442

442-447 Huns invade Byzantium. Destruction of cities in Illiria and Thrace, capture and inclusion of vast territory in Hunnish state.

443

Peace between Theodosius II and Atilla. By peace of Anatolius (the mediator of the treaty negotiation) Romans were to pay 6,000 pounds of gold immediately, and yearly tribute set at 2,100 pounds of gold, and immediate release of Hun fugitives

444

Atilla, Kara Bulgar Yabgu, becomes Hun Kagan (445-453) upon death of Kagan Bled (434-445), the highest ruler from Caucasus to Danube. Per Priscus, Bleda had honor burial and three-day giant feast attended by all nobles in Kaganate

445

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Udi (430-445) died, his son Tukhechjen becomes Khan. Empire Wey undertakes punishment raids into steppes against Syanbinian Jujanes.

447

2-nd peace of Anatolius between Byzantiun and Huns. Big tribute to Huns. Hun commander Edeco assented to assassinate Atilla for 50 pounds of gold

448

Byzantian embassy to Atilla, described by Priscus. Byzantian attempt to organize Atilla's murder.

448

Akatzirs are reported by Priscus living near Black Sea and subjects to Huns. Attila (7) (437-453) installs Karidach (Kuridach) as Akatzirs Khan.

450

In written sources, Huns are identified with Scythians and Cimmerians, and specifically with "Royal Scythians". Scythian ethnonym "As-kishi", or its stem "as" is retained in written sources, especially old Georgian documents, in Huns' name as "ovs", "os"

450

Hunnish society attained progress thanks to contact with Roman civilization. In dwelling place of Onegesios, in Attila's court, for example, prisoner from Sirmium constructed baths

450

Priscus: "because Scythians are mixed and besides their own language, they try to speak language of Huns, or Goths or Ausoni, when some of them have to do with Romans"

450

Per Priscus, Sabirs conquered lands of Onogurs, Saragurs and Ugors in steppes around north-western Caspian coast.

450

Death of Theodosius II Flavy on a hunt (10.4.401). Markian, a son of a plain soldier, becomes Emperor, formally as a husband of Pulheria. 450 Markian refuses to pay tribute to Huns.

450

Huns were called Os in 5th century, during their raids in Georgia in time of king Vakhtang. Word "ovs" of Georgian sources is actually a slightly deformed name of a Türk tribe "As"

451

Attila heads great army, size of Hunnic army has been variously estimated at between 300,000 and 700,000, crossed Rhine and swept across Europe looting, pillaging, and burning. Aetius battles Attila on Rein in June at Battle of Chalons on Catalaunian Plains

451

451.06.15 "Battle of Peoples" at Catalaun ravine near present Trua. On Atilla's side are Huns, Geruls, Ostrogoths and part of Franks, on Aecius side Roman legions recruited from Gaul and Germany, Vestgoths, Burgunds, Franks, Armorician Alans headed by San. No definite result.

451

Jordanes: In a direct fight battled strongest troops on both sides, without surprise attacks. Mighty tribes were killed, 165K on each side, plus 15K Gepids and Franks who fought at night, killing each other, Franks on Roman side, Gepids on Hun's side

451

Atilla prepares a campain in Italy

452

Italian campain of Atilla, ending with peace. In spite of large conquests, Atilla agreed to peace because of epidemy in his army.

453

Atilla (434-453) weds young German Ildico. Next morning he is found dead. End of Hunnish hegemony in Central Europe. Atilla is given state funerals. Ellak becomes Hun Kagan (453-454).

453

Vestgoths, headed by Torismud, son of killed in Catalaunian Plains Theodorix, defeat Huns and expell them from their territory.

453

Coalition of Germanic clans defeats and kills Ellak in battle at Nedao.

453

Gepids under Ardaric battle Huns under Ellak. Tingiz ((Dengizik/Diggiz) and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) retreat to a military camp and defend for 2 years. Negotiations allow Tingiz and Bel-Kermek leave with Bulgars, remaining defenders are surrendered to Ardaric

453

To Ellak, eldest of brothers, given Sabir ulus, to 2-nd son Tengiz given Kutrigur ulus, to Bel-Kermek, 3-rd son, given Utigur ulus

453

454-565 Gepids control Pannonia. Gepidian reign is established in Dacia (current day Transylvania)

454

Several Hunno-Bulgar uluses outside of three main Hunnic hordes joined with Byzantines with obligation of military services, and were given land to settle as protectors against their northern cousins

454

Coalition of Germanic clans defeats and kills Ellak in battle. Sabirs without Ellak retreat to East, through Pontic Steppes, to Daghestan. Kutriguri and Utiguri under Bel-Kermek (Hernach), fell back to 'Ugol' place that corresponds to Bessarabia

454

454 - 455 Rebelion in Hun's state. German tribes of Gepids, Rugs, Geruls rebelled. Battle at Nedao (Nedava, tributary of Sava). Coalition was composed of Gepids, Scires, Suaves, Ruges, Herules and Ostrogoths

454

Jordanes: You could see Goth with lances, Gepids mad with sword, Rug breaking spears in his wounds, and Svev bravely acting with bat, and Hun with arrow, Alan with heavy, Gerule with light weapons.

454

Atilla's son Ellak tried suppress rebelion, was defeated and died in battle. Remains of Ellak's army retreated east of Carpathians. Two other sons Dengizik and Ernak remained in Dacia and Bessarabia. Alans led by ruler Kandak were forced to go to Dobrudja

454

Ostrogoths take part on losing side in battle at Nedao where Gepids under Ardaric crush last Hun coalition. Ostrogoths become sovereign and settle in Pannonia

454

End of EUROPEAN HUN EMPIRE

275 - 454 A.D

Founder - brothers Muncuk, Oktar, Rua & Aybars

Area - S Russia, Romania, N Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, Chekoslovakia, S& C Germany. From E France to Urals; from N Hungary to Byzantine Empire (Area -4,000,000 Km2)

455

Tingiz and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) (455-465) lead Bulgars, on way from Pannonia to estuary of Buri-chai (Dnieper) are attacked by Gallidjians (Scandinavians). Tingiz is killed. Bel-Kermek raises red flag of Asses and breaks through to lower Dnieper.

455

Bel-Kermek, 3rd son of Atilla, leads Bulgars to settle between Crimea and estuary of Buri-chai (Dniepr), and proclaims a beylik of Altynoba, with Bel-Kermek as Baltavar (Lord of Beys) (455-465).

455

Bel-Kermek with Hun's Sadagariem and other tribes remain in Dobrudja (Little Scythia) and Lower Moesia. Later known as Sacromontizies and Fossatizies.

455

Two other Attilla's sons, Emnetzur and Ultzindur lead from Crimea tribes of Ultzindzur and Ultzindgur to Byzantium on right bank of Danube

455

Jews from Armenia and Persia begin immigration to North Caucasus

459

Hephthalites conquer Kushans and invade India

460

Bulgarian tribes Ultinzur, Bittugur and Bardor of Pannonia join Altynoba, with Bel-Kermek as Baltavar (Lord of Beys). Huns adopt name Bulgars, Bulgars use Hun's language.

463

Ogur Türkic tribes, including Onogurs (Onoghur = 10 Ogur Confederation), Saragurs (White Türks) and Uturgurs (Utigurs) (Uturgur = 30 Ogur Confederation) cross Itil and enter Europe.

463

Priscus Rhetor: In 463 Byzantium was visited by an embassy of Saragurs, Urogs and Onogurs, who, dislodged by Avars drive to west, conquered conquered lands of Akacirs and asked for a union with Byzantium

463

Destunis G.C.: Saragurs, Urogs and Onogurs sent embassy to Byzantine.They said that they were expelled by Savirs, who fled Avars, who fled from people living on shores of ocean. Saragurs subjugated Akacirs and want to become Roman federates

463

Gumilev suggests that after fall of Hun's Empire Bulgars take a lead and decimated Akacirs, finishing fall of Hun's Empire

465

Bulgars led by Bel-Kermek control lands of Akacirs and asked for a union with Byzantium

465

Altynoba's Bel-Kermek (455-465) dies, his older son Djurash Masgut becomes Baltavar (465-505).

465

Agaçeris crossed Caucasus and invaded Media. Agaçeris are included in Five Ogur confederation which also included Karluk, Kangly, Kalaç and Kipchak nations

468

Tengiz (Dengizik) and Bel-Kermek (Hernach) sent ultimatum to Byzantium, when it is rejected, Dengizik invades Thrace, but is defeated under command of Byzantians Anagast and Aspar. Dengizik dies in battle.

468

Bulgar Kutigurs fight Byzantine (468-469). Bysantine's Anagast procured Khan Dengizik's head after he was killed and sent it to Constantinople where it was displayed atop of a spear. Kutrigurs never forgot Utigur Hernach's refusal of help.

468

468 - 469 Danube war between Huns and Byzantium. Bel-Kermek (Hernach) after Dengizik death leads army. Byzantium beats off invasion with difficulty. Byzantium mercenary army consists of Slavs and Alans commanded by Aspar, whose father was Alan.

468

Vernadsky G.V.:"in some respect Danube war of 468 - 469 was a war of Alans and Ants against their former masters, Huns." After Byzantian victory Huns left Dacia and Bessarabia. These provinces opened for Slavic colonization.

469

Western Hunnish clans retreated. Utigurs to Azov-Taman SE of Sea of Azov. Kutrigurs to between Dniepr and Don Rivers, NW from Sea of Azov Utigurs. Sabirs in Daghestan SE of other two Hunnic hordes, between Daryal Gorge and Kuma River on Caspian Sea.

469

469 - 488 movement of Bel-Kermek army back to Meotian-Taman region. They call themselves descendents of Hernach and are known as Utigurs (Kulakovsky "Alans")

469

Remnants of Tengiz (Dengizik) horde follow Utigurs to Dniepr and settle between Dniepr and Meotian Sea. They were called Kutigurs.

470

Peace between Syanbinian Jujan and Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire

480

Promulgation of first Sinicization decree in Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire

481

Ioanes Antiochenus: First written agreement of Byzantium emperor Zeno (474-475,476-491) with Bulgars' Djurash Masgut (465-505), allying them in war against Ostrogoths Goths of Theodoric (493-526), son of Triarius [Must be 475]

485

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Üychen (?-485)died, his …??... Doulun (485-492) becomes Khan.

486

Bulgars fight again against Goths as allies of Byzantium

488

Bulgars settle in Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia after expelling Theodoric Ostrogoths (488).

488

Khazarian khalifa begins rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus

488

Bulgars fought again against Goths as allies of Gepids.

488

Bulgarians had been regarded as a brave and invincible in war people

488

Chersonesus ruler decided to restore walls and towers damaged by earthquake, scared of Kutugur's raids

492

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Doulun (485-492) killed, end of Syanbinian Jujan overlordship over steppes and Tele. Nagay (492-493) becomes Khan

492

Kutigur Bulgars invade Thrace, defeat Byzantine army and kill their leader Julian.

493

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Nagay (492-493) died, his son Futu (493)becomes Khan.

493

493-499 Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns start raiding Thrace, possibly with Slavs. They took advantage of a civil war in Byzantium.

495

Publication of Sinicization decree in Tabgach-Northern Wey Empire prohibiting use of Tabgach language.

498

Altynoba's Djurash Masgut in winter 498-499 annihilate Byzantium Illyrium army and extends to left bank of Danube. Altynoba subordinates to Avar overlordship.

499

Toba conquerors assimilated and switched to Chinese language

500

Gaochan in Turfan oasis, under ethnically Chinese lord, under overlordship of Syanbinian Jujanes, breaks with their allies Syanbinian Jujanes.

500

Earliest settlement on site of city of Bolgary dates to about AD 500

502

Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns Bulgars plundered all of Thrace

504

Buddhism proclamed a state religion in China.

504

Altynoba's Djurash Masgut Kutigur Huns raid Thrace, possibly with Slavs

505

Altynoba's Djurash Masgut (465-505) dies, Tatra (505-) becomes Bulgarian Baltazar subordinated to Avar overlordship.

505

Sabirs from Pannonia immigrate to North Caucasus and Itil valley

505

Sabirs created a powerful federation of akin tribes, "Kingdom of Huns". They were populous and had an army of 20,000 well equipped cavalrymen. They were masters of art of war and build siege machines unknown even to Persians and Byzantines.

508

Teles (Teleutes) Khan Mivotu in vassalage to Ephtalites. Helps Empire Wey 's 3K army defeated Syanbinian Jujanes at lake Puley, after being paid 60 pieces of silk by Empire Wey. Futu dies in struggles. Mivotu is rewarded with musical instruments.

508

Cheunu (508-520) becomes Syanbinian Jujan Khan.

513

Altynoba's Tatra Bolgarian raids against Byzantium become annual. Hunno-Bulgars aid in Vitalians Revolt (514 ).

513

Buddhism penetrates to Syanbinian Jujanes. Khan Cheunu converts to Buddhism. Religious divisions in ruling clan

516

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogüy, captures Tele (Teleut) lord Mivota, Tele escape to Ephtalites.

516

Slavs raid Macedonia and Illiria

518

Cheunu sends an embassy to Empire Wey, received by emperor Syao-min-di, re-establishes vassalage to Wey.

518

Justin I repulsed Slav hordes beyond Danube

519

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu makes a treaty with Ephtalites, gives Eftalite lords his princesses as wives. Allies with Korea (Gao-Guyli) against Empire Wey, and together smash Manju tribe Dideugan.

519

Empire Wey recognized suzerainty of Turfan's Gaochan, and Syanbinian Jujanes continue to trade with them, receiving bread and cloth. Iron goods are provided to Syanbinian Jujans by their Türk (Türks-tuku) vassals in Altai.

520

Syanbinian Jujan Khan Cheunu (508-520) killed by his mother, installed her another son, Anahuan, replaced by Polomyn.

521

Teles rebel and defeat remaining Syanbinian Jujanes under Polomyn, and Polomyn moves to Empire Wey with remains of his Horde. Anakhuan escaped to Empire Wey in 520, so both branches of Syanbinian Jujan horde ended up in Empire Wey.

521

Polomyn's horde is resettled within Empire Wey by lake Kukunor, and Sinifa, brother of Anakhuan, is resettled beyond border, north of Dunkhuan.

525

Anahuan leads Empire Wey expedition against rebel fortress Bo-ye and defeats rebels. Receives rewards and absolution from Empire Wey.

525

Togon's Syanbinian prince Kualüy pronounces himself Khan.

527

Procopius Caesariensis: Hephthalites are people from Unn tribe, but they do not mix with them… they are not nomads like other Unn tribes, but live since ancient times in a fruitful country… Among all other Unns they are the only ones with white bodies and not repulsive faces

527

Procopius: Chosroes sent army of Huns into Roman Armenia, to create a diversion there, had fallen into hands of Valerian and his Romans, and these barbarians had been badly beaten in battle, and most of them killed

530

Procopius gives first historical accounts about invasions of Slavic tribes across Danube. These invasions started during first half of 6th century during Roman emperors Justinian (527-565) to Heraklios (610-641)

530

Migrations of Slavs were frequently led by Türks, shown by archaeological finds (oldest pieces of Slavic pottery and metal art objects are borrowed from Türkic peoples), and by numerous Türkic loanwords concerning state organization and cultural life

530

Second army of Romans in Caucasus consists of Saracens (sary chechle - yellow haired, or Kipchaks) under Arethas, ruler of Saracens,

531

Gao-Khuan revolted, defeated Tobases and split Empire Wey into East Wey and West Wey, both controlled by Chinese military leaders under a nominal Syanbian Emperors.

531

With split of Empire Wey Syanbinian Togon became free.

531

Khazarian khalifa loses rule over Georgia and Abania in S. Caucasus to Persian Sasanid Chosroes I (531-578)

531

Procopius Caesariensis: "Huns and Ants, Sklavens already crossed Danube many times and caused unrecoverable damage to Romans". Attack of Altynoba's Tatra Huns and Slavs on Byzantium. After next raid Justinian appoints Ant (Slav) Khvalibud a Roman commander on Danube

534

Anahuan with his horde attacks Tele's kingdom Gaogüy, defeats it. Tele's lord Ifu killed by his brother Üegüy, who continues resistance, is defeated, killed by Ifu's son Bidi.

537

Goths siege of Rome. To help Belisarius came army of Altynoba's Tatra Bulgars, Sklavens and Antes. Byzantines drive Goths from Rome with help of Bulgar troops (537-538).

538

Slavic soldiers are mentioned in Roman army

539

Altynoba's Tatra Bulgar Huns raid to Thrace. Byzantium runs 3 wars

540

Tele's kingdom Gaogüy under Bidi is defeated and Gaogüy stops existing.

540

Split of Empire Wey makes Syanbinian Jujan Khan Anakhuan a gegemon for both halves of Empire Wey.

540

Altynoba's Tatra Kutigur Bulgars take and plunder not only rural areas, but take forts (539-540). In Illyrium alone, in 540, Kutigur Bulgars seized 32 forts.

540

Syanbinian Khan Kualüy sends embassy to Gao-Khuan in Syanbinian Eastern Wey, becoming an enemy of Syanbinian Western Wey.

540

Togon occupied considerable territory, had cities (protected settlements), had organized government, maybe copied from Tobases, had extensive cattle growing economy, low in culture, and under strong dominance of Khans.

540

Türkic autonomy is recognized by Western Wey

540

Byzantine use of treacherous politics cause Utiguri and Kutriguri to unite against them

545

Altynoba's Tatra (505-545) dies, Boyan Chelbir (545-590) becomes Baltavar subordinated to Avar overlordship

545

Syanbinian Jujan lord Anakhuan, allied with Syanbinian Eastern Wey, together with Eastern Wey's emperor Gao Khuan, and Togon's king Kualüy, attack Syanbinian Western Wey, but do not defeat Syanbinian Western Wey decisively.

545

Emperor of Syanbinian Western Wey Ven-di sends ambassador An Nopanto to Türk lord Bumyn. Bumyn displays disloyalty to their suzerain Syanbinian Jujanes and sends a reciprocating embassy to Syanbinian Western Wey capital Chanan.

545

Türks under lord Bumyn become allies of Syanbinian Western Wey and its successor Bey Chjou.

546

Bey Chjou dynasty was not of Chinese, but of Syanbinian roots and relied on assimilated Syanbinian elite.

546

Ephtalite embassy came to W. Wey

550

West Tele tribes revolt against Syanbinian Jujan dominance, and attack from western Djungaria toward Khalka in Syanbinian Jujan heartland.

550

West Tele tribes are intercepted on the march by Türkic army coming from valleys of Gobi Altai in lined formations, covered by armored plates, on well fed war horses. West Tele army, surprised by unintended enemy, pledged submission to Türkic Lord Bumyn.

550

Bumyn, by accepting West Tele tribes vassalage displays another unloyalty to Syanbinian Jujanian suzerainty.

550

Descendant of Gao-Khuan, Gao Yan, establishes his own dynasty in Syanbinian Eastern Wey named Bey-Tsi.

550

Mid. VI century Period of king Sarosius' government in Alania. Establishment of tight contacts between Alania and Byzanthia.

551

Türkic Khan Bumyn (1) provokes Syanbinian Jujanes to a war by asking for a Syanbinian Jujan princess as a wife. Anakhuan refuses, calling him slave-smelter daring for such an offer.

551

Boyan Chelbir Bulgars and Slavs led by Khagan Zabergan (558-582) cross Danube, loot Thrace and Macedonia, and attack Constantinople. Military losses, Byzantine bribes, and attack of Bulgar homeland by Avars causes Khagan Zabergan to withdraw his forces.

551

Boyan Chelbir Kutriguri Bulgars break through Antian border guard into Byzantine

551

Zachariah Ritor: Bulgars and Alans are mentioned once as settled populations with towns, and once as nomads. Bulgarians towns were in territory immediately next to Caspian gates, while nomads - in steppes north of Caucasus.

551

Zachariah Ritor: Thirteen peoples Avnagur (Onogur), Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Hasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasir, Kulas, Abdel and Hephtalit live in tents, earn their living on meat of livestock and fish, of wild animals and by their wea

551

Onogurs had towns - in earlier times they had built town of Bakat.

551

Boyan Chelbir Kutrigurs raid Thrace. Byzantium, with a skillful diplomacy, incite Uturgurs against Kutrigurs, and Uturgurs attack Kutugurs

552

Türkic Khan Bumyn executes Syanbinian Jujan's ambassador, and in winter of 552 attacks Syanbinian Jujanes and defeats them.

552

Bumyn Il Khan (1) dies in 552, his son Kolo Isigi (3) becomes Khan (552-552) under name of Kara Issyk Khan (3) , his uncle Istemi (2) remains Istemi-Yabguu.

552

Syanbinian Jujanes, defeated by Türks, elect Anakhuan's uncle Dynshuttsy Khan and continue fight. In a battle near mountain Lyanshan they are defeated by Kara Issyk Khan.

552

Anakhuan commits suicide, his son Yanlochen flees to Syanbinian Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi. Bumyn takes title of Il Khan, but dies in same 552

552

Kipchaks were members of Türkic Kaganate, Boma were not members of Türkic Kaganate

552

Kipchaks lived in Altai, valley of Chjelyan = Djilan = Snake, so Snake mountain and city Zmeinogorsk. Probably same as Boma of Dinlin Belonged to Türkic Kaganate, lived in Alashan, mixed with Kangals, became Koman/Kuman/Cuman Russ. Polovets)

552

Kara Issyk Khan (3) dies in 552, his younger brother Kushu (4) becomes Khan as Mugan Khan (553-572).

552

Huns and Syanbinians conquered from China western part of Shansy province. Local people were submitted to Hunnish Khan Mugan, who controlled Chesi area west of Ordos, between bends of Chuanche and Nanshan.

552

GOKTÜRK EMPIRE

552 - 743 A.D

Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)

Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

552

End of WHITE HUN (EPHTALITE) EMPIRE

420 - 552 A.D

Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur)

Area - Half of Northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan, Eastern Turkestan but also significant parts of Central Asia (Tokharistan, Chaganian, Samarkand, Bukhara, Kesh, Ferghana, Chach (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km2)

552

Sabirs switch from Iran to Byzantium and conquer Agvania. Byzantium conquer Italy

552

2 Nestorian monks smuggle silkwarm eggs from China to Byzantium, and by early 7-th c silk industry is well established in Asia Minor

553

Syanbinian Jujanes are defeated by new Goktürkic Khan Mugan Khan. They flee to Syanbinian Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi, who accepted them and repulsed Goktürkish pursuit.

553

553-568 Goktürks and Sassanids ally to destroy Hephthalite Empire (Avars?).

553

Ephtalite embassy to W.Wey

553

Kidanes defeated and subordinated by Emperor Ven-di of Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi. Rest of Kidanes fled to Kogurio (Korea) or subordinated to Goktürks, who reached Yellow Sea.

554

Syanbinian Jujanes do not have their herds, and are unable to work. They terrorize and rob population, and Syanbinian Eastern Wey Bey-Tsi sends an army against Syanbinian Jujanes.

554

Thirty Tatar tribes (Chinese Shi Wey), Tatabs (Khi by Chinese), and Kidanes are east of emerging Goktürk Khaganate. All three people were close in culture and life, spoke dialects of Mongolian language, but had hostile relations.

554

Tatabs lived on west slopes of Khingan and were allied with Eastern Wey under dynasty of Bey-Tsi.

554

Destruction of Syanbinian Jujanes weakened Syanbinian Eastern Wey Bey-Tsi. At same time, Syanbinian Western Wey Bey-Chjou was growing and more powerful.

554

Persians defeat Sabirs in Agvania.

554

Jujans started looting in Tsi, but are repelled by Chinese. 555 Jujans flee from Bey-Tsi to W Wey, given to Goktürks and decimated. Lyan attacks Bey-Tsi

555

Syanbinian Jujanes are expelled from Syanbinian Eastern Wey by Bey-Tsi army to steppes. Syanbinian Jujanes are beaten by Goktürks and Kidanes.

555

Goktürks defeat Avars (Abars). First encounter of Goktürks with Ephtalites.

556

Syanbinian Jujanes flee to Syanbinian Western Wey, which surrenders 3K army to Goktürk's ambassador, who orders decapitation of all except children and servants. End of Syanbinian Jujan dominance of steppes.

557

Avar's ambassador Kandikh to Byzantium Justinian demands lands and tribute.

557

Emperor Justinian (527-565) began a huge fortification program in Balkans, in an attempt to slow, if not stop, invasions across Danube

557

Assimilated Syanbinian, Üyvyn Tay, establishes his own dynasty in Chanan of Syanbinian Western Wey.

557

557-561  Türks and Sasanians ally to destroy Hepthalite state in Central Asia, which had ruled, among other places, Sogdiana.

558

Bulgars living along lower Dniepr and Don are Kuturgur Huns. Bulgars living along Kuban are Uturgur Huns. Kuturgurs raid Byzantium's Thracia, Byzantium incites Uturgurs to fight with Kuturgurs.

558

Avars then confederated Kuturgurs and proceeded to attack Byzantium. Perso-Avar union lasted to 628 and almost destroyed Byzantium.

558

Avars devastate Thessalia, Hellas, Epirus, Vetus, and Attica, invad Peloponnese and kill "noble and Hellenic race". Avars ruled over Peloponnese for 218 years

558

Kutugurs under Zabergan raid Byzantine on Balkans and come to walls of Constantinople.

558

Avars smash Bulgars/Uturgurs, loyal allies of Byzantine, and Zals (?) living along lower Don. Kutugurs supported Avars.

558

Istemi Yabgu stops at Itil (Itil), allowing Vars and Huni, both from North of Aral Sea, to escape to west and become known as Avars. Istemi: When I finish with Ephtalites, I will go after Avars, they can't escape

558

Vars (Ugrian tribe, related to Hungarian ancestors Ogors/Ugrs which lived between Itil and Yaik (Ural) rivers, and to Hungarians living in Bashkiria up to 13 c.) and Huni (Khionites = Sarmato-Alanians), both from North of Aral Sea, become known as Avars.

558

Avars first crushed Türkic Sabirs, allies of Byzantine, who lived on Kuma river and in Dagestan. Avars then crushed Uturgurs, a Bulgarian tribe and also allies of Byzantine, living between Itil and Don, then crushed Zals and Ants on both sides of Don.

558

Avars negotiate with Persia and Byzantium to find an ally. Avars conclude agreements with both Persia and Byzantium. Avars proceed to play in their own interests.

558

Invading Avars attack Hunno-Bulgars. Utiguri, Kutriguri, and Sabiri are conquered (559-560).

558

Goktürks conquered Itil and Yaik areas. Remains of Huni, Var, and Obr tribes went west to Danube, creating united Avar people. Their first task was to escape from Goktürk enemy. They managed it only because Ephtalites in C Asia distracted Istemi Yabgu

558

Türkic coins with Türkic inscriptions 'Khagan' and 'Yabgu' are minted in Soghd, Chach and Ferghana. Terminated by Arab conquest of Mawaranahr and consequent introduction of new kinds of coins, in Semirech’e issue of Türkic coins continues into 9th to 10th

558

Hephthalites (Avars) move west to Black Sea steppe to form Avar Khanate

558

Slavic warriors may have taken part in a Bulgar invasion to Greece

558

AVAR EMPIRE in Europe

558-805 AD

Founder - Khan Bayan

Area - Pannonia, Balkans, Bessarabia, N. Pontic steppes to Tanais and Itil (Total Area - 2,500,000 Km2)

Seat of Avar kaghan and his warlords east of Danube in Pannonia, known as Rhing

558

Discovered in Mongolia late in 20c inscription Var-guni (Bar-guni) mention Europian Avars. Majority of Avar's time skeletons from Hungary are Mongoloids, Bayan was probably Mongolian word, evidence that Avars were Mongol Jujuns

558

Avarian embassy to Byzantium. Avars defeat Sabirs and Ants.

558

Avars led by Khan Bayan invaded N Caucasus and faced Byzantium's allies. In Byzantian sources first time they are mentioned

558

Avars show up on Danube.In Jan-Feb embassy of Kagan Bayan negociates in Constantinopole. Justinian hires them to guard agains "barbarians", the same Türkic nomadic hordes as Avars, who continued to erupt from N China.

559

Utugurs under Sandilch attack returning Kutugurs, and start a war. War weakens both peoples.

559

Kutugur Bulgars under Zabergan, with Avars, made a treaty with Sklavins(?), cross Danube on ice, raid Byzantine, in three directions. Via Macedonia to Ellada to Thermopile, to Thracian Chersones, under Zabergan through a break in Long Wall to Constantinop

559

Velizarius led defense and repulsed Kutugurs. Kutugurs remained in Thracia until paid off and received "gifts" on same conditions as Utugurs. Kutugurs leave Thracia.

559

After unsuccessful storm of Constantinopol Bulgars and Slavs were trapped. Byzantians cut their retreat. Justinian magnificiently spared them. Velizarius pushed them behind Long Wall. Zabergan retreated because Avars were coming fron east.

560

Avar Khaganate extended from Itil to mouth of Danube. Bulgars are split, with Kuturgur Huns (also listed are Onogundurs (10 Ogur Confederation), Hunnogurs, Sabirs belonging to Avar Khaganate, and Utugur Huns (30 Ogur) and Khazars loyal to W. Khaganate

560

Avars invaded land of Utigurs on east shore of Meotida. Utigurs recognized Avarian rule. Avars invaded Kutigurs. Kutigurs defeated and became Avarian vassals too. Bayan proclames himself Kagan.

560

Goktürkic ambassadors to Iran killed by Ephtalites on the road

561

Embassy from Kucha to Bay-Chjou

561

Avars captured Bessarabia, execute local ruler Mesamer

561

Sosroi Nushirvan crushes Sibirs

562

Last incursion by Kutigur Bulgars into Byzantium, stopped by Byzantium's instigating internecine wars between two most powerful branches, Kutigur (Kutrigur) and Utigur.

562

Second Avarian embassy to Byzantium

562

Avars came to Dobrudja and settle there

562

Persians defeat Ephtalites

563

Western Wey dynasty Bey-Chjou was of Syanbinian descent, and relying on support of Syanbinian elite transformed into large landlords. They assimilated and used Chinese language.

563

Goktürkic emissary in Constantinopole

563

Goktürkic armies, supported by Khosrov, attack Balkh, invade Ephtalite lands south of Amudarya. Per 'Shah-Name', decisive battle near Bukhara. Ephtalite army of King Gatifar is crushed

564

Army service was made compulsory for simple people of Empire Wey, and two armies were organized. Army of nobles - fubin - was balanced by army of people. Fubin came from military organization of Syanbinian tribe Toba, who conquered Northern China in 4 c.

564

Service in army was mandatory for Syanbinian clansmen. In reward they received land parcels, and were released from any other obligations. Service was inherited, and with time soldiers become a privileged caste.

564

Initially army consisted exclusively of Syanbinians, but later it was supplemented by rich Chinese from Shansi and Shensi who accepted foreign dynasty after it adopted Chinese culture and language.

565

Avars under Khan Bayan (c. 565-602) subjugate Hunnugur and Sabir, and other Hunnic hordes, assimilating them under Avar Khaganate.

565

After defeat of their forces by Avars, Khazars took lead in Sabir-Khazar federation. Part of Sabirs move north, to Middle Itil region, among settled there Bulgarian tribes. Their main city Suvar is a great center of Itil Bulgaria.

565

Pannonia came under pressure from Avars, Lombardian new king, Alboin, found support from Constantinople less then he had hoped for.

565

Langobards destroys Gepidian Reign

565

Goktürkic Khagan Mugan Khagan and Istemi Yabgu defeat Ephtilites at Neseph. Considered fall year of Ephtilite state. Ephtilites traces lost in history

565

Hephthalite territory divided between Iran and Goktürk Khaganate. Border between them ran west of Balkh and east of Murgab

566

Between 566 and 571 Istemi Yabgu subjugated peoples Bandjar, Balandjar (Belendjer) and Khazar. Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Goktürks' closest allies and assistants.

567

Goktürks capture Bosphorus

567

Gepidic kingdom defeated by Avars

567

Avars ally with Longobards

567

Goktürk embassy to Sasanids, with a request for Silk Route transit trade through their territories is rejected

568

Sirs live in towns and have ports in Djurdjan, across Amu-Darya

568

Avars occupy Panonia

568

Lombardian King Alboin led a host of Lombards, Gepids, Sarmatians and other peoples (including Hunnic Bulgars, per Paul the Deacon) from Pannonia to Italy. Others, amongst them Bavarians, Saxons and Taifali, joined invasion en route

568

As Lombardian King Alboin advanced, vacuum left behind them was filled by Avars, Bulgars and Slavs

568

Goktürk embassy to Constantinople led by a Soghdian Maniakh, proposing to ally against Sasanians

569

Goktürks invade and conquer Sirs.

569

Zemarkh embassy to Goktürks, with five further embassies exchanged by 576

569

Goktürk war agains Sasanians; penetration of Kabul and Gandhara regions

570

Kutugurs, as all people on Itil ruled by Goktürks, are encouraged by rise of Avars as alternative to Goktürk suzerainty.

570

Syanbinian Jujan horde keeps robbing neighbors. Language = Syanbinian Consider themselves to be ethnically Tobases.

570

Khazars are ruled by Western Goktürk Khaganate (570-659)

570

Goktürk rulers receive 100,000 pieces of silk tribute a year from China. Goktürks are the first Eurasian steppe empire to extend from Roman/Byzantine world in west, Iranian/Sasanian in south and Chinese in East

572

572-591 Goktürks and Byzantines ally against Sassanians

572

Goktürks subjugate Utiguri until about 581.

572

Western Goktürk Khaganate's "Ulus" on lower Itil and Yaik

572

Mugan Khan (4) dies in 572, his younger brother Tobo (5) becomes Khan (572-581)

572

Peace between Bey-Tsi and Goktürks

574

Embassy from Khotan to Bey-Chjou

575

Istemi Yabgu (2) dies, his son Dyangu (Tardu) Kara ChurinTürk (7) becomes Tardu Yabgu (575-603).

575

Uturgurs are allied with W. Goktürk Khaganate.

575

Alliance between Goktürks and Uturgurs

576

Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Byzantine in Crimea and Panticapeum (Kerch) as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai (576-590).

576

Utugurs under Khan Anagai, as auxiliaries of Goktürks, take Bospor. Utugurs remain on N. Caucasus from Dagestan to Derbent, under W. Goktürk Khaganate suzerainty

576

Goktürks establish Khazar Khanate.

576

Bulgars of lower Itil and Kuban are loyal to Goktürkish dynasty Ashina

576

Goktürks are on both sides of Kerch straight. Goktürkic army leader (Tma Tarkhan) on Taman peninsula, giving name to city Tmutarkhan

577

Goktürks invade Crimea

578

Slavs invade Ellada

578

Bysantium allies with Avars. Avars defeat Slavs, killing their Prince Davrit

578

Regions along lower Danube were in 6th and 7th centuries inhabited by Sclavinae, Antes, and Huns (probably Bulgarians). Moldavia and northeastern Muntenia were populated by Slavic tribe of Antes.

579

Avarian ultimatum by Kagan Bayan to sessede city Sirmiy. Tiberius refuses. Avars capture Sirmiy after a two tear siege

580

Presence in Istria of hostile to Bysantium Slavs and Avars. Avars were partly responsible for southward migration of Serbs and Croats

580

Slavic chieftain sacked Corinth

580

Avars conquered and plundered cities and strongholds in Hellas

580

Goktürks invade Lasica

580

Peace of Bay-djou with Kaganate

581

Tobo (5) dies, Shetu (9) becomes Khagan (581-587).

581

Tardu Yabgu sends Bokhan to attack Cheronesus as a leader of Utigur Huns under chief Anagai.

581

Goktürks at Chersonessus walls

581

581-584 Devastating raid of Slavs through Thrace, Macedonia and Ellada. Settlement of Slavs in Thrace

581

Khans Ashina are Türks and are" wolves". Syanbian quean describes her husband Shabolio as Wolf by his personality.

581

Chinese revolt against Syanbinian dynasty. New dynasty received name Suy. Sinadized Syanbinian elite survived.

582

Avar Khagan Bayan attacks Byzantium in Thrace.

582

Kuturgur Hun Bulgars settle in Bessarabia and Wallachia, from which they will move to Moesia under pressure from Magyars, and make it Bulgaria.

582

Hunnic Khan Zabergan (558?-582) dies, Gostun becomes Hunnic Khan ruling over Kutigurs.

582

Shetu Kagan appoints Gostun Kutigurian Khan

582

Goktürkic Khaganate officially breaks up into Western and Eastern Khaganates. Khwarezm (lower part of Amu Darya R., S. of Aral Sea) and Sugd/Sogdiana (Zerafshan and Kashka Darya R., including area around Samarkand) likely autonomous kingdoms to become independent in next century with Tang defeat of Goktürks

582

582 - 602 Rule of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. First mention of Khazars in Byzantine annals, along with Bulgars and Barsils. Noted their coming from Bersilia, supposedly in Caspian steppe

583

Avarian attack on Byzantium

584

Hunnic Khan Gostun (582-584) dies, Orchona becomes regent of his nephew Kubrat (584-594).

584

New Emperor recognizes queen Khan's wife as daughter, thus Shetu as son, thus recognizing previous traditions of trading with Goktürks as a form of paying tribute, and confirming privileges of Syanbinian elite. Shetu acknowledges vassalage to empire.

584

New Slav attack on Constantinople. Defeat and retreat

586

Avars and Slavs besieged Thessalonica

587

Shetu (9) dies, Moho (14) becomes Khagan, followed by Tulan (Ün-Ulug) (16) (587-599). Tulan has anti-khan Tuli (Jangar) (18) (600-609) supported by empire.

587

Byzantium peace with Avars

588

Shetu Khan (19) dies, Ün Ulug (Tulan) (Dulan) (16) (587-599) becomes Khan

588

China open markets for trade with Türks

588

582? Separation of Goktürkic Empire into East (Mongolia) and West (Turkestan) parts

589

W. Goktürk Khaganate campaign against Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars. Both Khazars and Bulgars are confederated (jointed voluntarily, not as conquered) into W. Goktürk Khaganate.

589

W. Goktürk Khaganate's Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth. Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured wealth.

589

Invasion of Khazars, Greeks and Georgians to Agvania is repelled by Persians

590

Under dynasty Suy position of fubin worsened. Soldiers were moved from "military" lists to "Civil household lists", thus exemption from taxes ended. This was aimed against Syanbinian privileges left from Syanbinian overlordship.

594

Hunnic Regent Orchona (584-594) dies, Kubrat accends to Khanship (594-642).

594

Judging from some eparchial lists from end of 7-th or beginning of 8-th century, in 7-th century there was an Onogurian episcopate in Gothic eparchy. This attests early spread of Christianity among Onogurs

594

Theophanes Confessor and Constantinus Porphyrogeneus explicitly state that Bulgarians, settled on Balkans, had been called earlier Unogundurs

594

Byzantine patriarch Nicephorus calls ruler of Great Bulgaria khan Kubrat "ruler of Unogundurs"

594

Heir of throne, Tulan Khagan's cousin, Tuli (Jangar), with a title of Toleses' Khan = Tuli Khan, was Khan of north-east territory. Tuli Khan had vassals ShiWey (Tatars), Kidanes, Khi (Tatabs).

598

Kara Churin embassy to Constantinipole

599

Tulan (Ün-Üylüy) (16) is killed, Kara Churin Türk (7) becomes Khan with title Boke Khan (599-604)

599

Chinese fight successfully in Ordos

600

Tulan (Ün-Üylüy) (16) dies, Jangar (Tuli) (18) (600-609) assumes control of all Eastern Goktürk Khaganate, in vassalage of Chinese empire.

601

Byzantians defeat Avars

601

Priskos, Byzantine general, defeated Avars in Banat and collected 9.000 prisoners, 3000 Avars, 800 Slavs, 3200 Gepidae, and 2.000 Abarbarians

602

Byzantium general Priscus defeats Avars. Bayan (c. 565-602) dies. Next Khan rules (602-630).

602

HAZAR EMPIRE

602-1016 A.D

Founder - no historical data for founder, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf.

Area - Hazars separated from Goktürks and formed a state from Caucasian Mntns to Danube and N. Pontic area

603

Tardu Khan (7) dies in 603, his grandson Buri-Shad (13/14/15) becomes Khan of partitioned Western Goktürk Khaganate, controlling westernmost part. Chulo (10) controls eastern part.

603

Kushans rebel against Iran with help from Goktürks. Tocharistan separates from Iran

604

Rebellious Tele in basin of Selenga area pacified, but Djungaria and basin of Tarim did not return to Eastern Goktürk Khaganate.

604

New dynasty treat carefully descendants of Tobases (Syanbinians). Assimilated Syanbinians live along Great Wall from Khebey to Chanan. There were many large landowners and professional military pushed from power by Chinese landowners who took power.

604

Kara Churin Türk Boke Khan (7) dies, Goktürk Kaganate split into West and East. Tuli (Jangar) (18) becomes Khan of Eastern Goktürk Kaganate, Taman (28) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (604-610).

604

Nominally Djungaria and basin of Tarim entered Western Goktürk Khaganate. However Kibi on northern slopes of East Tian-Shan and Seyanto on S. Slopes of Altain-Nuru crest fought western Goktürks for 2 years (605-606) and gained freedom.

605

Kidanes revolt against Goktürk suppression

606

New state was created in Djungaria, under Kibi leadership, with a vast territory and including settled population necessary for nomadic state, in oasises Karashar, Turfan and Khami. Kibi's Prince Gelen took title Mokhe-Khan.

606

Leader of Seyantos Ishibo subordinated to Gelen but retained control over his tribe. State was likely a tribal union.

607

Order about outlawing a free trade of Chinese with Goktürks

608

Wars between Tele and Goktürks of Western Khaganate end.

608

Troops of Empire Suy attack Togon and destroy it.

608

Jangar Khan (Tuli) (18) (-608) died, his son, Shad Dugi, becomes Khan of East Goktürk Khaganate in vassalage of Empire Tan, under name Shibir (Shipi) Khan (25) (609-620).

609

Troops of Empire Suy attack Tele and Western Goktürk Khaganate

610

610-620 Avar Slavs raided Thessalia, Hellas, Aegean Islands, Achaia, and Epirus

610

Marquart: Leader of Unugurs (Unogundurs) Organa, founder of Bulgarian Dynasty Dulo, uncle of Kubrat Dulo, related to Ashina by female line, of most-western ulus, is baptized in Constantinople. Kubrat is not baptized.

610

Future Sibir-Khan (14), Mokhodu, of most western ulus is baptized in Constantinople. This starts his fight with Buri Shad (34) (610-618) and Tardu Yabgu (Tun-djabgu) (23) (618-630). Kubrat is not baptized.

610

Taman Yabgu (28) dies, Buri Shad Yabgu (34) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (610-618). Chulo (26) = anti-Khan (610-611).

615

Tobases living along northern border of Western Wey stopped being Tobases long ago, but did not become Chinese yet. They are equally distanced from steppes and China, and equally close to both. Goktürks called them Tabgach.

615

In time of revolt Tabgaches participated because of warlike ancestry, but acted aimlessly, because lost organization and unity.

617

617(?) A defeat from Byzantines resulted in deterioration of situation for Avar’s Khakan. Alburi killed at court of Avar’s Khakan.

617

Shi Wey, along with Kidan, Togon and Gaochan submitted to Shibir Khan Khagan (25).

618

Buri Shad Yabgu (34) dies, Tung Yabgu (23) becomes Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (618-630).

618

Bu-Yurgan refused to be elected Baltavar, saying, that he will be a bolyar, i.e. a cleric. On his advice, Kara Bulgars elected Alburi’s senior son Kurbat a Baltavar

619

Kubrat allies with Byzantium against Avars.

619

Both Tele leaders, Kibi's Mokhe-Khan and Seyanto's Inan, subordinate to Tung Yabguu Khan = Yabgu of Shenuy. Djungaria returned to Western Goktürk Khaganate.

619

Sirs are controlled by Tung Yabgu Khan directly.

619

Baptism of "Hunnish Khan" in Constantinopole. Avars reach Constantinopole.

619

China breakes union with Goktürks. Capture of Khesi. Lyan Shi-du and Lyu U-Chjou invade N China with Goktürkic support

620

Shambat, younger brother of Baltavar Kubrat, on Kubrat order, builds in aul Askal on mountains Kuyantau city-fortress named Bashtu, present Kiev. Other names Askal, Kuk-Kuyan, Shambat, Kyi.

620

Shibir Khagan (25) (609-620) dies, Kat Il Khan (27) becomes Khan of Eastern Goktürk Khaganate, free from vassalage of empire (620-630).

620

In 200 years descendants of Syanbinians assimilated in Tibet. Tsenpo was an inherited position, he received income from lands, taxes, tributes, confiscations and executions. But he could be dismissed at any time because he did not have support or real pow

620

Tibet army was under a special advisor. Tsenpo Nimry (570-620). In following history there is no Syanbinian role,

620

Avarian retreat from Constantinople

622

The Hijra. Start of Islam as a world event

622

Union of Lu Shey-da with Goktürks

623

Several successfull uprisings of Slavic tribes against Avars are recorded, for example revolt of Vends in 623.

623

Avars reigned over a vast territory between Alps, Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

623

Shambat starts war against Avars, with Ulchis (Slavs) and Ugrs. Shambat captures Pannonia and calls his ulus Duloba (623-658). Baltavar Kubrat calls him Kyi (Separated).

623

Slavs attacked Crete

623

Byzantine authors recorded ethnic composition of Avar Empire as Avars, Gepids, and Slavs

623

Birth of Samo state, first political formation of Slavs, first mentioned in writing in 623

625

Exchange of embassies between Byzantium and Western Goktürkic Khaganate

626

(Onogur?) Bulgars live in Trans-Caucasus on right bank of Kuban' to Don Different fr and rival to Khazars

626

Avars controlled all Kuturgur Hun lands Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars did not participate in Khazars' war raids into Caucasus Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars guarded western border of Western Kaganate Uturgur (Onogur?) Bulgars are allied with Tele (Dulu).

626

W. Goktürk Khaganate campaign against Sasanian Persia in Caucasus, with Khazars but without Bulgars

626

Khazars and (Onogur?) Bulgars confederated (voluntarily, not conquered) into W. Goktürk Khaganate. Khazars supply military contingents and participate in division of captured wealth. Bulgars man western border with Avars and don't benefit from captured we

626

Kubrat proclaims independence from W. Goktürk Khaganate and assumes title of Khagan.

626

While Heraclius with W, Goktürk Khaganates fights Persians in Caucasus, Persians with Avars attack Constantinople. Avars retreat with heavy losses and in disgrace. Kubrat suggests sucking Avar Khagan and replacing him. End of Avar-Persian union.

626

Khazars ally with Byzantine under Emperor Heraclius (626-630)

626

Li Shi-min coup. Peace with Goktürks at river Vey

626

Greeks and Goktürks seige Tbilisi

626

Avars suffered a crushing defeat at Constantinople in 626

627

Seyanto tribe and Djungaria left Western Goktürk Khaganate and joined Eastern Goktürk Khaganate Kat Il Khan

627

Cinese embassy to Tun-Yabgu Khan stopped by Kat Il Khan

627

Seyanto and Uygurs, both Tele tribes, help each other in Goktürk Khaganate. Seyanto's Inan and Uygur's Pusa support each other.

627

Series of revolts against Avars start among subjugated tribes. Uprising of western Slavs, led by Samo, a Frankish merchant, resulted in founding of a Slavic state on territory of present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia.

627

Avars and Perians beseige Contantinopole

628

Khazars capture Tbilisi

628

Seyanto tribe with 70K yurts gains independence.

629

Chinese take fortress May in Ordos. Counterattack by Goktürks on all fronts. Srontsangambo enthroned in Tibet

630

Bulgars/Barsils are incorporated into elite of W. Goktürk Khaganate horde.

630

Great Bulgaria north of Black Sea under Kubrat (630-660)

630

End of rule of Khazars by Goktürk W Khaganate

630

Seyanto pursue Goktürk Chebi Khan who finds refuge in Altai valley with 30K army.

630

Avars treat Bulgars/Barsils badly as conquered people. Western Bulgars/Kuturgurs move to Bavaria, and are annihilated by Frankish king Dagober. Eastern Bulgars/Kuturgurs joint with Bulgars/Uturgur

630

Avar Khagan (602-630) dies. Next Khan rules (630-?).

630

Sibir-Khan (14) recognized independence of Bulgaria under Kubrat of Dulo dynasty, his nephew of feminine line.

630

Qarluqs rebel, Tung Yabgu (23) dies, W. Goktürk Khaganate split, SW and NE. SW run by Nushibis, under Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) (631-631), installed by Nishu Khan Shad (32), son of Baga Shad (24). NE run by Tele (Dulu), under Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) (630-631).

630

Chinese Tang defeat Eastern Goktürkic and occupy Eastern Goktürkic Khanate (Mongolia). Kat Il Khan (27) taken prisoner by Tang army, Eastern Goktürk Khaganate is ruled by Tang Empire for 50 years (630-682)

630

630-640 Chinese subdue Tarim Basin

630

Türks of Ordos become known as Gok Türks (Blue Türks), different from their northern neighbors - Tele

630

80 K Chinese living with Goktürks are captured

630

Tardu Tong Yabgu of Western Goktürk Khaganate (619-630), per Chinese chronicle Tanshu, subjugated Toleses between rivers Orkhon and Tola, and Lake Aral, Iranians, advanced to Khandagar in south. His army has hundreds of thousands of good bow-shooters.

630

W. Goktürks invade Armenia and defeat Persians. W. Goktürks clear S Caucasus

630

Xuanzang visits court of W. Türk kaghan Tung Yabghu near Lake Issyk-Kul

631

Seyanto tribe keeps independence.

631

Seyanto under China = 70K wagons

631

Uygur leader Tumidu, heir of Pusa, defeated Seyantos and seized their ranges. Emperor Taitszun sent an embassy to Seyanto leader Inan and recognized him as Khan, as a counterweight to Uygurs. Uygurs subordinated and recognized new Khan.

631

Seyanto state organized like Türk's. Khan's sons are Shads, leading Tolos (North) and Tardush (South). Army numbered 200K lances, smaller than was 1,000K of Gokürks' Shibir Khan.

631

Seyanto state successfully controlled all Türkic leaders except for Ordos Türks under Chinese protection. Some Ordos Türks move north into Seyanto state.

631

Irbis Bolun Yabgu (31) replaced by Nishu Khan Shad (32) as Dulu Khan (631-634). Sibir Khan Yabgu (14) killed. W. Goktürk Khaganate reunited.

631

New Seyanto state spread from Altai to Khingan and from Gobi desert to Baikal.

631

Kutugur's rebelion against Avars and defeat of Kutugurs by Avars

631

Samo Slavs in 631 beat Frank Army of King Dagobert near Vogatisburg and gain their independence from Franks and Avars

632

Seyanto gave a blow from behind. Ashina Chuni, loyal to traditions of Eastern Kaganate, raised his army against Seyanto. He had 50K army without success.

632

Yishbara Tolis Shad (33) is not trying to re-subjugate Bulgars

632

Kipchaks are not in 10 arrows of Western Kaganate

633

Kubrat unites Bulgar Kuturgur and Uturgur tribes and liberated from W. Goktürk Khaganate.

633

Kubrat organizes state, 2nd=kavkhan, 3rd=lchirguboyl ??

634

Seyanto tribe with 70K wagons keeps independence.

634

Dulu Khan (32) (631-634) dies, his younger brother Tong Shad becomes Yabgu as Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu (634-639).

635

Kubrat escaped dominance of Goktürks and Khazars, by supporting Sibir-Khan in 630. He became independent, defeated Avars. Controlled near- Black Sea steppes

635

Kubrat sent embassy to Constantinople and received title of Patrician. Kubrat's Bulgaria joins Byzantium as Federatae. Byzantium becomes a bordering state with Khazaria of W. Goktürk Khaganate, controlling former Khazar territories.

635

In W Goktürk Kaganate nations that did not receive autonomy were Karluks, Yagma (YanNyan), Kipchaks, Basmals, and Hun (Dulu) tribes Chue, Chumi and Shato

635

Yshbara Tolis-Shad Yabgu reorganizes W. Goktürk Khaganate into 10-arrow Goktürks, of 5 Nushibi and 5 Tele (Dulu) tribal leaders, recognizing them as Shads (blood prince).

636

Bulgaria hostile with Khazars of W. Goktürk Khaganate on East, with Avars on West, with Byzantium on South.

636

NE of Western Goktürk Khaganate controlled by Tele Khan Tong Shad Yabgu, who attempts to unite W. and E. Goktürk Khaganates.

639

Seyanto ally with Gaochan in defense of Gaochan from aggression of Empire Tan. Gaochan is attacked and occupied.

639

Yishbara Tolis Shad (33) died, then (42), then cousin Bagadur, title = Irbis Yshbara Yabguu Khan (37)

639

Capital of 'South Horde' at Chu & Ili

641

Türks in service of Tan Empire are moved to north bank of Khuankhe and serve as a barrier against Seyanto.

641

Seyanto Khan Inan organized expedition against restored Goktürk vassal Khaganate on north bank of Khuankhe. Seyanto army demolished 80%.

641

Kipchaks have 100K people, 40K army, 90 K horses

641

Irbis Yshbara Yabgu Khan executed (37), his brother Yugu-Ukuk (38) selected Khan of Western Goktürk Khaganate (641-651)

641

Kipchak on Altai subordinated to Khan Ükuk Yabgu,

641

Boma on Enisey subordinated to Khan Ükuk Yabgu.

642

First Khazar - Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman

642

Imperial Chinese garrison in Khami deafeats W Goktürks of Irbis Dulu Khan

645

Seyanto Khan Inan died.

646

Remains of Seyanto Horde loose to Empire Tan army and are dispersed. Uygurs fought Seyanto with Empire Tan and become loyal subjects and fight in all wars for Empire.

646

Seyanto Khanate was destroyed by Empire and their allies Uygurs, people were mercilessly wiped out. Remains of Seyanto dispersed by slopes of Beyshan, and joined Goktürks.

646

Empire Tan breakes relations with W Goktürkic Khaganate

649

Türk Chebi Khan horde is resettled in East Khanganate vacated by Seyanto.

650

Irbis becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate (650?-….).

650

Kipchaks move to Upper Irtysh and E. Kazakhstan steppes under pressure from China and Uygurs

650

Langobards conclude conquest of whole Italia, excluding Ravenna, South Italia and Sicilia.

650

In village Nagi Szent Miklos in Hungary is found famous treasure, 23 golden cups with Türkic inscriptions, dated by Avar period (c 650)

650

Migration of Bulgars to middle Itil, attested to by burial sites in Shilovka and Brusyany. Burials are of Türkic nobility with complex rites and rich implements.

651

With loss of W.Goktürk Khaganate rule, former confedrate Khazaria with attached Bulgar Kutugurs, Alans, Slavs and Itil Bulgars gain independence. Khazars keep Kagan from Ashina dynasty.

651

Defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euthrates battle.

651

W. Goktürks take Tinchjou (Bishbalyk = Head City)

652

End of first Khazar - Arab war (642-652) against Abd Al Rahman

653

Ükuk (38) died, son Chjenchu (39) (653-659)

655

Khazars allied with Alans.

656

Murder of Calif Osman. Civil war in Califate.

656

Founded Khazarian state

656

Advance of Chinese inperians against W Goktürkic Khaganate. Rebelion of Baiyrku, Sige, Bugu and Tonra against Empire Tan. Sogdiana occupied by Chinese (657-700)

658

Great Bulgaria, Baltavar Kubrat's state, is divided into 2 uluses, Western Kara Bulgar and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, separated by river Shir (Don).

658

Kara Bulgar extended from estuary of (Danube) to Shir (Don). Ak Bulgar Yorty extended from Shir (Don) to estuary of Itil (Volga). Border went by river Aksu, including aul Kharka (current Kharkov). Bulyar was included as semi-autonomous beylik.

658

Great Bulgaria's capital Bandja, renamed fron Onoguria (Gr. Phanagoria). Summer stan is Khorysdan or Batavyl ( Lord's stan), present Putivl. In between are two more stans, Tiganak and Baltavar, present Poltava.

659

Tang defeat last rulers of first Goktürkic empire. Chjenchu (39) executed, end of dynasty. Western Goktürkic Kaganate ceased to exist forever. Yshbara Khan died

660

Khan Kubrat Dulo (24) (618-660) died, is buried 13 km from Baltavar, present Poltava, burial excavated in 1912, no anthropological, forensic examination.

660

Kubrat's 1st son Bayan (Batbayan) is elected Baltavr and remains in Great Bulgaria, confederated with Khazars

660

Kubrat's 2nd son Kotrag resettled his Kuturgurs (Kotrags) West of Don, and in 730-740 they spread to E. Azov area to join Kuban Bulgars. Kotrag domain consisted of groups Barsula, Eskel and Bulkar (Bulgar).

660

Kubrat's 3rd son, Atilkese, nicknamed Asparukh (Khan Asparukh) heads Onogurs (Utigurs)

660

Agvanian Djevanshir defeats Khazars

662

Tibetians penetrate Western region to support rebelling Türks

662

Arabs fight Khazars for Derbent

663

Dismemberment of Great Bulgaria - Divided up among Kubrat's five sons, third of which was Asparukh, Khan of Utiguri.

665

With death of Prince Samo first Slavic state is re-intrgrated into Avar Khaganate in 665

665

Kutlug (56) restores E. Goktürk Khaganate, becomes Elteres Khagan (665-691).

667

150K Kumans, Turkmens, Gok-Oguses and Kyrgises, confederated with Khazars, cross Itil from the east. Shambat and Asparukh battle Khazars, loose and flee to Bashtu, present Kiev.

667

Arabs defeat Peroz, last Sassanian shah, and cross Oxus River (Amu Darya) for the first time

668

Peace treaty between Khazars' Kagan Kaban and Kara Bulgar's Baltavar Bat-Boyan. Kara Bulgar is subordnated to Khazar.

669

Split of Kara Bulgar into W. and E. of Dniepr. West is controlled by Shambat and Asparukh, and East, including Bulyar, by Baltavar Bat-Boyan

670

Bat-Boyan Bulgars are defeated by Khazars. Khazars recover territory with east Bulgar (Utugur) and Alan populations.

670

Khazars under Alp-Ilitver defeat Bulgars

671

Large Horde of Kubrat's 3rd son, Atilkese, nicknamed Asparukh, after death of Shambat in 670, moved west with Onogurs (Utigurs) and some Turkmen (Byzantian historians call them Bolgars from now on), to Danube and Pannonia district Kashan, between rivers B

673

Arab raids to Bukhara, across Oxus River

675

Bulgars arrive on Danube under Asparukh

678

Kubrat's 4th son Kuber (Ultzindur?) (Balkor?) moved from S of Crimea his Ultzindurs and Ultzingurs of Hunnish stock to Pannonia under Avars (678-679)

678

Kubrat's 5th son Emnetzur (Altsek) moved his Alciagirs, Alcildzurs and Alpidzurs from Crimea to Italy under Byzantines, to duchy of Benevetto/Abruzi region, Pentapolis at Ravenna.

679

Byzantine's Constantine IV attacks Asparukh Bulgars. Bulgars retaliate, take Scythia and lower Moesia, Pliska becomes Khans' new headquarters.

679

Chuvash may be descendants of Utugur Bulgars and Volgo-Kama Bulgars. Tatars may be descendants of Utugur Bulgars and Volgo-Kama Bulgars.

679

Territorially, Bulgar's split is along Kutugur/Utugur uluses, with Kutugurs independent of Avar and W. Goktürk Khaganates, and Utugurs remaining in W. Goktürk Khaganate sphere.

679

Kubrat's Bulgaria is split into independent (Byzantium Federatae) west Khanate under Asparukh, controlling from Donets on East to Danube on West, and Eastern Ak Bulgar Yorty, subject to Khazar Kagan from Itil to Donets, with capital Onogoria (Gr. Phanago

679

Kipchaks restored Goktürk Kaganate, second component = Sirs, descendants of Seyanto, became 'Kok Goktürk' = Blue Türks, known as Kipchaks from that time

679

Revolt Against Tan Empire

679

Asparukh Bulgars invade Thrace

680

Asparukh Khaganate includes Slavs. Asparukh Khaganate spreads into Dobrudja south of Danube.

680

Asparukh 680 treaty with Slavs recognizes their self-government and territory. Slav princes participate in people assembly along with Bulgarian nobles. state administration consists of a Khan and 12 Great Boyls.

680

Slav's obligation to Bulgars is to pay tribute and supply military contingents. state capital established in Pliska in Moesia.

680

Empire of Avars peaked at end of 7th century (680 AD), after devision of Kubrat Bulgaria between Avars and Khazars, when it reached from Volga to Danube

680

In Avaria, men were laid down in tombs with their horses, arms, and horse-trappings. Tomb objects are characterized by geometrical ornaments pressed upon a print, with a certain degree of Byzantine influence

680

Arab raids to Khwarizm, Samarkand

682

Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes "Kingdom of Huns" (Belendjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Barandjar (Balandjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bulgars, subordinated to Khazars.

682

Kutlug is proclamed Khagan, title Ilterish (Country Creator) and oranized a second Khanate, appointing his brother Kapagan as Shad, and another brother Tosifu as Yabgy

683

Successful Türkic rebellion led by Kutlug Ilterish (56) and Tonyukuk, restoration of Türkic Goktürk Khaganate

683

Khazar raid to Armenia

684

Khazar raid to Cis-Causasus

688

Greek occupation of Cis-Causasus

689

Otuz-Tatars are hostile to Kutlug Khan state

690

Bulgar Khan Bat-Boyan (660-690) dies, succeeded by his son Bu-Timer (690-700) in vassalage of Khazars

691

Kutlug Khan (56) (682-691) died, succeeded by his brother Mochur (Bak-chor) (Mochjo) (Mochur) (57) (691-716) as Kapagan Khan.

692

Boma live N. of Kyrgyz Khanate

692

Kutlug Khan subordinated Khalka

692

Kipchaks mixed with Kangar (Besenyos, Russ. 'Pecheneg') between Black Irtysh and Syr-Darya in Desht-i-Kipchak

694

Embassy from Kurykans arrived to China. Rebellion of Ashina Suytsy and his alliance with Tibetians. Chinese imperial troops crush Tibetians, Turgeshes and W Goktürks

700

Khazars are frequently allied with Huns of North Caucasus. Alp Elteber of Huns of North Caucasus is a vassal of Khazars. Huns capital city is Varachan (late 10 c).

700

Tatars lived north of Tatabs and Kara-Kibi, on Kerulen tributary of Amur river, in those times mostly engaged in fishing.

700

Oguz tribe federation relocates in great numbers from Orkhon area to vicinity of Talas, then to Syr Darya. Oguz dialect separates from Eastern Türkic, and by 11th century Oguz language of Syr Darya differs from Eastern Türkic in lexicon and pronounciation

701

Khan Asparukh (679-701) of Danube Bulgaria dies, his son or grandson Terval (702-718) succeeds him

703

Busir (Ibousir-Glavan) becomes Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate (703?-….).

703

Khazar royal princess ….. marries Bysantine emperror Justinian II to become Empress Theodora.

704

Ashina Khayn subjugated Semirechye for Empire Tan. Shato subdued without fight. Western Goktürks are subjugated, and Karluks, Huvu and Shunishes accede

705

Khan of Danube Bulgaria Tervel aids Justinian II in regaining his control of Constantinople after a rebellion. Afterwards, Terval is crowned "Caesar"

705

Beginning of systematic Arab conquest of Transoxania. Qutaiba ben Muslim becomes Governor of Khurasan

706

Chinese break negociations with Goktürks

708

Chinese built three fortresses north of Huanhe against Goktürks

709

709 Arabs capture Bukhara and Samarkand. 711 Arabs capture Khiva. 712 Arabs subdue Khwarezm and recapture Samarkand. 713 Arabs sack Kashgar.

711

Khazars help to install Phillipicus as a Byzantine Emperor

711

Goktürks suppress rebelion of Turgeshes. Divisions in Khorezm

712

Khan-Caesar Tervel, after leaving Justinian II to his doom, sees fit to avenge his death by raiding and looting southern Thrace.

712

Kuteyba subjugates Khorezm and takes Samakand. Emperor appoints Mohedo Tutuk a ruler of Samakand

713

Arab embassy to China

714

Chinese, under emperor T'ai-tsong, defeat Goktürks at Lake Issyk-Kul.

714

Khazars loose Derbent to Arabs

714

Trurks are defeated at Byshbalyk. Shato subordinate to Empire Tan

715

Chinese beat back Goktürkic attacks on Beytin, and Arabs and Tibetians on Fergana 716 Luchen is taken from Kidanes. Turgeshes rebel against Empire and defeat Chinese and Karluks

715

Ases, and then Yasygs, are cruelly suppressed by Kapagan Khagan

716

Mochur (Bak-chor) (57) (691-716) Qapagan Khan died, after defeating Bayirku of upper Kerulen but killed on return trip. He was succeeded by Mogilyan (Mokilien) (63) (716-734), elder brother of Kul-tegin, installed by Kul-tegin. Peak of second Goktürk empire (716-734)

718

Danube Bulgars under Khan Tervel as federats of Byzantium defeat Arab invasion and save Byzantium. Khan-Caesar Terval (26) (702-718) dies, ?.. becomes Khan (718-725).

718

Orkhon Inscriptions on Tonyukuk slella are created, describing events and providing Türkic perspective. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

718

Khazars invade Azerbaijan.

720

Goktürks' victory over Chinese imperians. Kashmirian Radj is given title Van

722

Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737) First campaign of Arabian troops led by Zh. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars

722

Son of Türk Bilge Khagan, Tengru Khan, has 300K army

723

Khazars lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar

723

Start of massive Jewish emmigration to Khazaria (723-944)

724

In Avaria, after about 40 years, i.e., after 720 AD, figures of plants and animals were used more frequently, were cast and decorated. New art shows Türkic Asian features, probably a new population coming from east took place of earlier one

724

Second Jirrah's campaign in Northern Caucasus.

725

Danube Bulgar Khan ..?. (718-725) dies, end of Dulo dynasty. Sevar becomes Khan (725-740). Danube Bulgar Khanate expands.

727

Khazars invade Azerbaijan. Muslam's raid against Khazars

730

Khazar's Barjik leads 300K army to raid Azerbaijan (Albania?). At Arbadil, Khazars defeat entire Arab army.

732

Orkhon Inscriptions on Kul Tegin slella with a large and small inscriptions, and on Tonyukuk slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

732

Otuz-Tatars moved from Goktürks to Amur-area taiga.

732

Khazar princess Chichek marries Bysantine emperror Constantine V to become Empress Irene.

734

Mogilyan Khan (63) poisoned, his son Yollyg-Tegin (Yijan) (65) died, his brother Bilge Kutlug Khan (66) succeeded as Tengri Khagan (66) (734-741).

735

Fubin annulled statuary. Chinese and foreign (Syanbinian) stratification was fixed and joining Chinese people was impossible. This started a new ethnical substrate. All non-Chinese could only join border army, hated by Chinese element.

735

Campaign of Arabian military leader Mervan Kru in Alania. Alan king Itaz.

737

Arabs force conversion to Islam. …... becomes first Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam for political reasons (703?-….).

737

Khazars loose Samandar to Arabs, move capital to Itil.

737

Goktürks attack Kucha

740

Danube Bulgaria Khan Sevar (725-740) dies, Kormisos becomes Khan (740-756)

740

Ashina Sin is appointed a ruler of ten tribes, sent west and killed. After his death Dumochji, Yabgu of three tribes is appointed Dumochji, Yabgu of three tribes

740

UYGUR EMPIRE

740 - 1335 A.D

Founder - Kutlug Bilgekul Khan (Bilge Kutlug Tengri Khan)

Area - Central Asia and Northern Mongolia

743

END OF GOKTÜRK EMPIRE

552 - 743 A.D

Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen)

Area - From Black Sea across Asia along northern borders of Mongolia and China almost to Pacific Ocean, and valleys of Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)

744

Ozmysh Khagan (68) (742-743) killed by Basmils. Basmils failed to take control of E. Goktürk Khaganate, and Uygurs, with Karluk help, set Kuli Peilo Khan as Kutlug Bilga Khagan (11) (Tengrida Bolmish El, Qutluq Bilge Qaghan) (742 - 747). Creation of Uygur

744

Uygurs substituted one Türkic people for another, closely related, for hegemony of Mongolia, in the next century (744-840)

747

Khan Marduan of Daghestani Bulgars, Burjans, build a small wooden city, named city Marduan. Khazars called it Mardukan. Present Bulgar (Great Bulgar)

747

Tatars lose a battle to Uygurs N-W of Selenga. Tatars were caught at Keyre spring and river Tri- birkyu, and lost half of army.

747

Ay Tengrida Qut Bolmish, Tutmish Bilge Qaghan (11) dies. Bayanchur (12) (747 -759).

747

Created Shine-usu, Terkhin and Tes inscriptions. Inscriptions are in Old Uygur?? language in Türkic alphabet. Kagan Bayanchur (747-759) relates 6-th c events with "QSR=QASAR". Sources

750

Bulgars live along north-western shore of Caspian Sea

750

After living as neighbors of Chuvash people for over 1,000 years, a part of Hungarians moved south to "Levedia" in approximately 750 AD, while others remained between Itil River and Ural Mountains

750

Kengeres/Pecheneg/Kangar/Besenyos living west of Uygurs and are hostile with them

751

Defeat of Chinese armies at Talas river by a combined forces of Goktürks, Arabs and Tibetans. End of Chinese control over Turkestan. Paper starts spreading to Arabs and on to Europe

752

Tatars lived on eastern border of Uygyria.

753

Ilmish Kutlug Khan is Kara Khan of Goktürks

755

Constantine V (son of Leo III) builds a chain of forts along Bulgarian border. War begins between Danube Bulgars and Byzantines. After initial success, Bulgars are defeated.

755

Created Orkhon Inscription on Mogilyan Bilge Khan slella. Inscriptions are bilingual, in Kipchak language in Türkic alphabet, and in Chinese language in Chinese characters. Sources

756

Danube Bulgaria Khan Kormisos (740-756) dies, Vinekh becomes Khan (756-761)

759

El Tutmish Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. El Tekin (13) (759 - 779).

760

Khazar Khagan Boghatur (760?-…)

760

Bulgar Khan Tat-Ugek renames city Marduan to Bulgar, which becomes a center of small Burjan kingdom.

761

Khan Vinekh of Danube Bulgaria (756-761) and all his kin assassinated. Teletz of Ugain clan and a leader of conspiracy is elected new Khan (761-763).

762

Khazars, led by As Tarkhan, invade and re-conquer Cis-Caucasia. 764 Khazars take Tbilisi

763

Danube Bulgaria Khan Telets seizes southern Thrace. Bulgars loose battle of Anchiel. Khan Telets (761-763) is murdered by hostile Boils for his failure. Umar, then Bayan (763-765) is elected new Khan

765

Danube Bulgaria Khan Bayan (763-765) is replaced by Toktu, then Magan, then Telerig (c.765-777) assumes Bulgarian Khan-hood.

772

War between Greeks and Danube Bulgars. Khazaria unites with Alania

775

Leo IV "Khazar" emperor of Byzantine Empire (775-780)

777

Danube Bulgaria Khan Telerig (c.765-777) is replaced by Kardam (c.777-c.803)

779

Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Tonga Bagha (14) (779 - 789).

780

Leo II, greatson of Khazar Kagan, ruler of Abkhazia. (780-….)

786

Khazars help Abkhazia to free from Byzantine, and Abkhazia becomes Khazarian dependency

789

Tengride Bolmish Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Taras (15) (789 - 790).

790

Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Aychur (16) (790 - 795).

790

Shato subordinate to Tibet. Tibetians take Beytin and Kucha (Ansi) 791 Tibetians take Khotan

791

Franks met resistance on their campaign in area of Austria and Slovenia

792

Franks met with little resistance on their 2 campaigns in area of Austria and Slovenia because of Avar/Bulgar/Slav draught and famine

792

Avar leaders fought each other between 792 and 795, but Kaghan and Yugrush, his fellow ruler, were killed by their own men, who blamed them for draught and famine

794

Tibetians defeat Uygurs 795 Tatabs and Tatars are defeated by Chinese

794

According to archaeological evidence, Avars populated Banat, Crishana, and parts of Transylvania. Their number in Transylvania is not very high, but this is difficult to estimate. As in other territories, they probably lived together with Slavic tribes

795

Avars power broken, Franks destroyed residence of Kaganat. Nestor chronicle stipulates that all Avars died, but some retired to east of Tisza. Last reliable mention of Avars is from 822, and in 873 there is a record of uncertain character.

795

Ay Tengride Ulugh Bolmish Alp Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Qutluq (17) (795 - 805)

796

Avar Kaghan and his warlords abandoned their capital Rhing before Frankish host reached it in 796, but 90 per cent of Charlemagne's horses that advanced as far as Gyõr in 791 also perished of famine

796

Avar state, weakened by internal dissent, was destroyed by a combined Frankish and Bulgarian Khan Kardam attack in 796.

803

Danube Bulgaria Khan Kardam (c.777-c.803) is replaced by Krum (38) elected to Bulgarian Khan-hood (803-814). Bulgars under Khagan Krum unite with Franks to crush Avar Khaganate.

804

Khan Krum's army has 30,000 chain armored heavily armed cavalry, vs. Byzantium's less than 400.

804

Khan Krum venture to become independent suzerain, lays off federatae status, become Tzar, and absorbs Slavic and Avar territories and populations. Policy program for next half century.

804

Charlemagne and then Pepin defeat and subjugate Avar Khan in Pannonia, rob 2 centuries of treasuries. In 805 Avar Khagan Zodan baptized with name Theodore. Theodore continued ruling as a subject of Charlemagne

804

Joint forces of Bulgars and Franks crush and annihilate Avar Khaganate.

805

End of AVAR EMPIRE in Europe

558-805 AD

Founder - Khan Bayan

Area - Pannonia, Balkans, Bessarabia, N. Pontic steppes to Tanais and Itil (Total Area - 2,500,000 Km2)

Seat of Avar kaghan and his warlords east of Danube in Pannonia, known as Rhing

805

Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Qutluq Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (18) (805 - 808).

806

Manicheans arrive to Chanan from Uygurs

807

Danube Bulgars and Greeks fight.

808

Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Alp Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (19) (808 - 821).

813

Bulgars take Adrianopole.

813

In 813, Krum led a large army of Slavs and Avars against Byzantium and besieged Constantinople without success. He died in following year.

814

April 13, 814 While preparing another attack against Byzantines, Khagan Krum (38) bursts a blood vessel and dies. Khagan Omurtag (41) assumes Bulgarian Khan-hood (814-814). Boils rule Bulgaria - Chok (?) (?_?).

814

Khan Ditsen (40) (814-816)

816

Chok and Boils Danube Bulgars conclude a peace treaty with Byzantines to last thirty years, to be renewed every ten years.

816

Khan Omurtag (41) (816-831)

817

Inhabitants of Samandar revolt against attempts by Khazar Khagan Karak introduce Judaism

817

Manichean missionaries are exiled to Uyguria

818

Danube Bulgars thrust to north as far as Kiev (818-820).

819

Kara Bulgarian Khan Aydar (819-855)

820

Khazars found Sambata (sam = high, bat = stronghold) and Kiev ( kui = low, ev = settlement), settled by Khazars and Magyars.

821

Preslav is completed - new Bulgarian capital.

821

Kun Tengride Ulugh Bolmish, Kuch Kuchluk Bilge Qaghan. Unknown (20) (821 - 824).

824

Tengride Qut Bolmish, Kuch Bilge Qaghan. Hazar Tekin (21) (824 - 832).

827

Danube Bulgars and Franks fight.

830

Khazar Khagan Khan-Tuvan (Dyggvi) (830?-…)

830

Construction of Sarkel fortress by Khazars with Byzantium's help

830

Khzarian Kabars rebel against Bek (830-862).

830

First Rus Khaganate is established as ulus by Itil Bulgarian Khan Aydar (819-855)

831

Danube Bulgaria Khan Malamir (42) (831-837)

832

Danube Bulgars and Franks sign peace treaty.

832

Tengride Qut Bolmish, Kuchluk Bilge Qaghan. Kho Tekin (22) (832 - 839).

833

Khan-Tuvan (Dyggvi) sends an embassy to Byzantine asking to send engineers-fortificators to build fortresses against Rus' attacks.

836

Danube Bulgar Khan Presijan (43)(836-852)

837

Magyars crossed Dnieper from east around 837, occupying steppe as far as Danube by year 860

837

Atelkuzu, largely consisting of Ukraine, Moldavia and Eastern Wallachia, favoured survival at time of warming. As drought spread, it was possible to move flocks up-river to cooler, wooded regions, where fishing provided an extra food for semi-nomads.

837

Magyar tribes, and chiefly ruling caste, moved up river as far as Kharka, Bashtu, and Galich

839

Kho Tekin (22) (832 - 839) dies. Kichik Tekin (23) (839 - 840)

840

Destruction of Uygur Orkhon Empire by Kirgizes. End of Uygur leadership of E. Goktürkic Khaganate

840

E. Goktürk Khaganate Kichik Tekin (23) dies

840

In about 840-850 AD, Hungarians were forced to move westwards to Atelkuzu (Etelkoz) and they then occupied Carpathian Basin in 896 AD living there to this day

841

Kyrgyz ambassador arrived in China

842

Muhamad ibn Musa Al Khwarizmi works in Khazarian Kagan's palace, sent there by Caliph Al-Wathiq.

850

Bashkorts used prior to 9c antroponym 'Ishtek/Istek' (Asses, Ossian/Yassian people), and from 9 c became known antroponym 'Bashkort' from (according to Arab author Salam Tardjman) Khan Bashgird, whose horde lived in present area.

852

Khan Presijan (43) (836-852) controls Danube Bulgaria extending from Panonnia, Transilvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia, to Donets ??, with numerous inhabitants (Slavs, Bulgars, Thracians (Vlach, Wallach, Dacian, Get)

855

Kara Bulgarian Baltavar Khan Aydar (819-855) died, Gabdulla Djilki (Shilki) becomes Khan (855-882)

859

Khan Shilki lost battle to Khazar Kagan Iskhak at Baltavar (Poltava)

859

Kara Bulgar Khan Gabdulla Djilki (Shilki) lost Bashtu (Kiev) and Urus (Novgorod) uluses to Khazars. Khazars oganize them as ulus Rus. Khagan Iskhak appoints Norman leader Dir (Bulg. Djir) of Slavic militia in Bashtu a ruler of Rus and Norman Ascold (Bulg. As-Khalib) a Viceregent of Rus

859

Shilki settles in c. Karadjar (Chernigov) with territory

859

Shilki's brother Lachyn becomes Khan of remaining Kara Bulgar with a capital in Khorysdan (Putivl)

859

Kara Bulgar Bashtu becomes Khazarian Kiev

861

Religious debate in Khazarian court (khazarian Polemic) between Cyril and Methodius, Rabbi Yitzhak Ha Sangari, and Muslem cleric Farabi Ibn Kora.

861

Khazar Bulan Bek, nobility and some common people convert to Judaism.

862

Chronist Nestor gives 862 as year of creation of Rus. Ruses are rulers of Slavs. Ruses live in military settlements and "feed" by spoils, a part of which was rendered to Jewish Khazars. Slavs are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. Russes are eth

862

Viking warrior Hrorekr (Riurik) leads expedition to Staraya Lagoda and occupied city in 862

862

Hrorekr (Riurik) (862-879) takes Novgorod, the other brothers take two other cities. Eventually Riurik gained all three cities. Gradual conquest of surrounding Slavic states, raided as far as Constantinople. At his death, his son Ingvar is too young to ru

863

Khan Shilki re-unites Bashtu and Karadjar with Kara Bulgar. Knyaz Dir (Bulg Djir) submits to Shilki, Ascold (Bulg As-Khalib) escapes to Galidj (Novgorod? Galich?) Shilki restores himself as Baltavar of Kara Bulgar with capital at Baltavar (Poltava)

865

Khan Barys of Itil Bulgaria beylyk founded by Tat-Ugek, died, and Shilki, Khan of Kara Bulgar with a capital in Baltavar (Poltava) is proclamed Khan of Itil Bulgaria (865-882).

865

City Bulgar becomes a capital of Itil Bulgaria.

865

Shilki proclames Itil Bulgaria an Islamic state, without a Califate recognition

866

Established Kara Bulgar station Kolyn (Khlynov, Vyatka)

868

First revolt of Türkish soldiers against Abbasid Calif al-Mutaawakkil (847-861)

868

Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Türkish praetorian of Abbasid Califate, becomes an independent ruler of Egypt and extends his rule to Syria

875

Khazars built a glass factory in Hrodna (present Belarus)

879

879-882 Post Riurik (862-879), pre-Olaf period in Rus ulus

882

Khan Shilki (855-882) died, Bat-Ugyr becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (882-895).

882

Khan Alabuga of a Baryn line of Sabans starts a city, named later Bilyar.

882

Olaf (Russ. Oleg) (882-913) First serious Rus expansion. Dominated several E. Slav tribes as tribute states.

889

After 889, Besenyos break through Khazarian border guards and replace Magyars from Levedia

893

Catastrophically cold winter of 892-893 froze Itil and Don, made it possible for Besenyos, whom Oguzes attacked, to flee across frozen rivers into Atelkuzu, although some of them were stuck east of Yaik river

893

Besenyos stop their pusuit of Majars at Dniepr, spend winter near mouth of river Buh

894

Majar Prince Levente leads Khazar Kabars against Bulgaria

894

Besenyos in alliance with Bulgars start a second attack of Majars, forcing them to leave Atilkiji (Itil-Kiji, Atelkuzu) for Transylvania and Upper Tisza region

895

Bat-Ugyr (882-895) abdicates. Baltavar (Elteber) Almush (Almas), eldest son of Shilki, becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria, accclamed in city Bulgar (895-925).

895

Khan Almush Kara Bulgar census lists 550K, 200K are Saban-speaking Bulgars, 180K-Ars (Udmurts, Finno-Ugors), 170K-Modjars

895

Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power

895

Some Khazar Kabars settle in Transilvania/Hungary with Majars.

895

Avaria (Pannonia) is divided between Slavic state of Great Moravia under Svyatopolk, and Türkic Khanate of Bulgaria. Bulgar Onogundur (or Onogur) settle there, possibly giving name to Hungary.

900

Ibn Ruste lists three branches of Itil Bulgars: "first branch was called Bersula, second - Esegel, and third - Bolgar".

902

Varangian Rus mercenaries are mentioned serving in Byzantine naval expedition to Crete. Rus mercenaries also serve Khazars

904

Olaf (Russ. Oleg), Prince of Kiev (882-916 ), remains a vassal of Avar Khaganate, divided between Bulgarian principalities.(In 859 to Khazars??)

909

Rus raiders (druzhina) with Varangian (Varyag) allies captures Khazarian fort Abezgun on Caspian Sea

910

First missions of Christian preachers from Byzantium to Alania. Establishing Alan arch-episcopate. Peter as first arch-bishop of Alania.

913

Kengeres, once a part of confederation of W. Goktürk Khaganate, were driven toward lower Syr-Darya and Aral Sea by Karluk Türks. They were grazing their herds between Yaik and Itil rivers.

913

North of Sea of Azov Kengeres occupied Levedia, taking it from Majars, and then drove them from Atilkiji area between Dniepr and Lower Danube

913

Ingvar (Russ. Igor) (913-945) re-established control over Eastern Slavs

913

Khazars demolish Rus marauding expedition fleet

915

Besenyos appear before Kiev for first time in force. Prince Ingvar (Russ. Igor) signs peace treaty with them establishing a frontier between Don and Dniester

920

Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or Asses), Oguz, Byzantines, Kengeres and Kara Bulgars.

920

Itil Bulgar Baltavar Almush (Almas) allies with Caliphate as counterbalance to Khazars. Beginnng of minting of Bulgarian dirkhems

922

Itil Bulgars congress of Bulgarian tribes adopted Islam as state religion, built mosques and schools. Itil Bulgars start transition to Arabic script from Türkic script

922

Baltavar Almush takes a title 'Emir' as obligation to rule in accordance with Quran

922

City Bilyar becomes a province Baityuba capital and a 3rd sized city after Bulgar and Bandja

922

City Nur-Suvar (922-1246). Present Tatarskiy (Sham-Suar).

922

Established city Tukhchi, renamed in 1219 Djuketun (Chistopol)

925

Governor of province Mardan-Ballak Balus starts a city, named later Banja (Banja-Burtas). Present Syzran.

925

Almush (895-925) died, Khasan becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (925-930). Almush is buried in Fortress Gulistan.

930

Seljuks are from tribe Kynyk - one of 24 Oguz tribes. Oguzes live between Syr Darya, Caspian and Aral seas. Kynyks live near delta of Syr Darya.

930

Yabgu rules Oguzes. Leader of Seljuk clan, Temir-Yalyg, nicknamed Dukak (Dokak), has a high position. He objects to a raid by Yabgu against other Türkic tribes, and sours relations with Yabgu. He and his tribe may be Moslems.

930

Itil Bulgaria has 30 cities. Khasan built: Matak Nukrat Bandja (Samara ) (Center of Mardan-Bellak ulus) Bulyar (citadel in Bilyar) Kamysh Simbir Gazan-Deber Kashan Tukhcha Tau-Kerman (Sviyajsk) Tash-Bulgar Subash-Simbir Karadjar Djilan

930

Khasan (925-930) died, Yalkau Michail becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (930-943).

930

Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage

932

KARAHANID (Karahanli, Ilek (ilig)-khanid, al-Hakaniye, el-Haniye, al-Afrasiyab)

932 - 1212 A.D

Founder - Saltuk Bugra Han

Area - All Trans-Oxus area including area between Issyk and Balkash Lakes Initial center in Kashgar

932

Khazars ally with Oguzes.

934

Kengeres join in Hungarian invasion of Byzantian Thrace.

939

Khazar Baliqchi Pesakh defeats Rus

943

Yalkau Michail died (930-943), Mohammed becomes Khan of Itil Bulgaria (943-976).

944

Kengeres join in Prince Ingvar of Kiev raid on Byzantium.

945

Helga (Russ. Olga) (945-962) is energetic in subjugating Slavs, exacting terrible revenge upon Drevlians, burying alive and burning their most distinguished men alive in a bath in Kiev, massacring 5,000 at her husbands funeral feast, burning Izkorosten with many killed or enslaved

944

All Gothic cities-colonies are robbed to foundation in raid of Prince Ingvar of Kiev

945

Start of Itil Bulgar-Turkmen 15 year war

949

Talib, junior son of Khan Gazan, and grandson of Almush, organizes a regular army in Itil Bulgaria.

950

There is information about Bashkir Confederation in 9-12c under Masim Khan, starting with Khan Bashkort. Bashkir 'Shejere' listed Khans Muyten Bey and Maiky Bey at approx. 1220, witha list of 10 predesessors covering 9-12c.

950

Al Mas'udi (died in 956) describes 4 Türkic peoples: Ydjni, Badjkurt (Maskurts, Masguts, called by Herodotus (5-th c. BC), Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20), and C. Plinius Secundus (62-113 AD) Massagetae Scythians), Badjanak (Besenyos), Nukardi

950

Conversion of Karakhanids and Uighurs from Buddhism to Islam under Satuq Bughra Khan (d.955)

950

Magyars living in Lebedia are vassals of Khazars.

960

End of Itil Bulgar-Turkmen 15 year war. Chief Turkmen Khan Arslan is beheaded by Bulgar sardar Kukcha Amir.

960

Besenyos live in Moldova (10th cent.-1171)

960

…... becomes second Kagan of Khazar's Kaganate to convert to Islam (960?-….).

960

Karahanid Satuk's son, Musa (Baytas) defeated eastern Khan Arslan Han and carried off this branch of dynasty. Entire Karahanli State becomes Muslim (960). Afterwards, forced diffusion of Islam among C. Asian Türks turned into holy war. First case among Türks to abandon tradition of freedom of convitions and to force conversion of subject populations

961

After Dukak death, Oguz Yabgu appoints Dukak’s son Seljuk Syu-Bashi as head of army. Seljuk evacuates his tribe to Sugura, near Jend (Hojdent), bordering with Moslem countries. Relocation may be caused by Kipchak wictory over Oguz State or shotage of pastures

961

Seljuks (Salchukiyans, Sakachikas) together with Kynyk clan and other Oguz clans leave winter capital of Oguz State Yenikent (Ruins of present Jankent) between Caspian and Aral, with their cattle of horses, camels, sheep and cows, to Maverannakhr .

961

M Kashgari: To live with Moslem Türks, multitudes of Seljuk tribes adopted Islam. Seljuk adopted Islam for political possibilities, and asked neighboring Bukhara and Khorezm to send Moslem scholars. Prior, they were called Turkmens, Karluks and Oguzes

961

Oguz Yabgu's Oguses arriving in Jend to collect annual taxes are driven out by Seljuks under pretext "We are not paying taxes to infidels", and started juhad war against Oguz State with Seljuk’s title Gazi. Start of independent Seljuk Beylyk in Jend.

962

Svyatoslav (962-972) first Rus Prince with Slavic name. Numerous campaigns to assert his authority over eastern Slavs. Invaded Khazaria and destroyed its capitl Itil, and its major fortresses Samander and Sarkel. Allied with Constantinople against Danube Bulgars

962

Türkic Ghaznavid dynasty is established in Afghanistan

962

GAZNELI EMPIRE

962 - 1183 A.D

Founder – Alptekin

Area - from Trans-Oxus to Ganges River, from Caspian to steppes of Pamir (Total Area - 4,700,000 Km 2)

964

Kengeres seriously threaten Khazaria

965

Byzantine governor (strategos) of Chersonesus asks Svyatoslav for aid against Khazars. Svyatoslav campaign to Don. En route he attacks Volga Bulgars. He raids Sarkel, Itil, and Tmutarkhan, also captures Chersonesus

965

Svyatoslav possibly signed agreement with Besenyos before crossing their territory. He allies with Oguzes. Purpose to gain tribute from Viatchi on Oka by removing their Khazar overlords. He also conquers Yasians and Kasogians in Taman-Kuban area.

965

Kkazar Kagan temporarily converts to Islam for political reasons

965

Itil Bulgars gain independence after defeating Khazars.

966

Bandja (Fanagoria), capital of Great Bulgaria in VII c, destroyed by Kiev Knyaz Svyatoslav. Escaped inhabitants established New Bandja in Jiguli on Itil (Murom setlement).

966

Khan Mohammed established fort Simbir (Simbirsk)

967

Knyaz Svyatoslav of Kiev seizes Khazar capital Itil

969

Khazaria, broken by Svyatoslav (called Barys by Bulgars), is divided between Itil Bulgaria and N. Caucasus Saklans.

969

Inflow of silver dirhams from Bulgaria and Khazaria stops

969

Saklans receive territory S. of rivers Sal and Kum, Shir (Don), Kuper-Kubar (Khoper), Boryn-Inesh (Voronej). Khin (Sarkel, Belaya Veja) is a province ruled by Bulgar's vali.

970

Khan Mohammed established fort Balyn (Suzdal) in Mary land

972

8 Besenyo (Bedjenek) tribes, under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Rus prince Svyatoslav and make a drinking cup of his scull. Bedjenek's continuous figts with Khazars, Byzantines and Russ.

976

Mohammed died (943-976), Talib becomes Khan of of Itil Bulgaria (976-981).

981

Itil Bulgaria Khan Talib (976-981) died, Timar becomes Khan (981-1004).

985

Türkic Karakhanid and Gaznevit, and Iranian Samanid states surround Seljuk Beylyk. Seljuks fight with Karakhanids and Samanids. Samanids give Karakhanid Yabgu Arslan Israel with Oguzes control of Nur, near Bukhara.

985

Seljuq Türks, a ruling tribe of Oguz, move to vicinity of Bukhara.

986

Khazars present Judaism to Knyaz Voldemir (Russ.Vladimir) of Kiev, Itil Bulgars present Islam.

988

Voldemir consolidates his possession of conquered city-states through adoption of single state religion. He orders conversion of subject people and launches built-up of Christian churches. Negotiations for military aid with Emperor Basil II end in agreeme

994

Formation of Türkic-Ghaznavid dynasty in present day Afganistan

999

Destruction of Persian Samanid dynasty by Türkic tribes.

1000

Some Khazars in Kievan Rus are Slavicized and adopt East Slavic language (1000-1300).

1004

Itil Bulgaria Khan Timar (981-1004) died, Masgut becomes Khan (1004-1006).

1006

Itil Bulgaria Khan Masgut (1004-1006) died, Ibragim becomes Khan (1006-1025).

1010

Kipchaks are pressed by Kumosi- Kimaks and then by Kidanes and move west

1016

Last Khazar Khagan Georgius Tzul is cuptured by combined army of Byzantine Basil II and Sfengus, brother of Kiev's Grand Prince Voldemir. Khazaria loses last independence and territories of Crimea and Taman.

1016

End of HAZAR EMPIRE

602-1016 A.D

Founder - no historical data for founder, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf.

Area - Hazars separated from Goktürks and formed a state from Caucasian Mntns to Danube and N. Pontic area

1020

Kipchaks occupy Middle and Lower Donets basin, lower Don and N.Azov. Earliest Kipchak gravestone monuments are located west of Itil

1024

Lavrentiev Chronicle dates establishment of Suzdal in Merya land

1025

Itil Bulgaria Khan Ibragim (1006-1025) died, Azgar becomes Khan (1025-1028).

1025

One of Seljuk chiefs, Arslan Israil Yabgu, serves as auxiliary to Karakhanid's Ali-Tegin, against Ghazavids.

1026

Kengeres invasion of Byzantium is repulsed by Constantine Diogenes..

1028

Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar (1025-1028) abdicated, Ashraf becomes Khan (1028-1061).

1029

Kipchaks control steppes from Itil to Irtysh

1032

Torgul-beg , with Daud and Arslan Israil Yabgu, acquires control of E. Iran.

1035

Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar established fort Khazar (Voronej)

1036

Itil Bulgaria Khan Azgar established city Tyumen, center of Tubdjak ulus (Tyumen)

1040

SELCUK EMPIRE

1040 - 1157 A.D

Founder – Seljuk

Area - East, Balkash and Issyk Lakes and Tarim Derya; West, Aegean and Mediterranean; North, Aral, Caspian Sea, Caucasian and Black Sea; South, area including Arabia (Area - 10,000,000 Km 2)

1051

Kengeres invade Byzantium.

1054

Seljuks, under Tügral Beg, capture Baghdad, Abbasid capital, from Buwayhids, establish Seljuq Sultanate, and become official protectors of Caliphate.

1054

Rus chronicles record appearance of Guz people, pushed by Kipchaks - a branch of Kimaks of middle Irtysh and of Ob.

1055

Rus claims that majority of Kipchak tribes have crossed Itil and occupy E. Europian steepes.

1055

Ipatian Chronicle reports first arrival of Kipchaks at border of Pereyaslav principality

1059

Yabgu Arslan Israel with Oguzes fights Karakhanids, and withdraw with booty, leaving Samanid heir Ismail El Muntasyr, who loses war with Karakhanids,and dies. Samanid state desintegrates, Karakhanids take over Maverannakhr, and Gazavids take Horasan.

1060

Kipchaks replace Besenyos (Bedjenek) from N Caucasus steppes. Stan of Kipchak Khans is located on river Sunj. N Caucasus steppes is an important component of Deshti-Kipchak.

1063

Beginning of reign of Seljuc Alp Arslan

1064

Kengeres invade Byzantium, across Thrace to gates of Constantinople..

1065

600K Oguzes crossed Danube, devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Kengeres and Bulgars, who were ruled at that time from Byzantium, annihilated them. Remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipch

1065

Visit of Alanian king Durguleit Great to Georgian king Bagrat IV in Kutais.

1065

Three Türkic peoples inhabit steppes N. of Lake Balkhash: Oguz (Ghuz, Torks, Ouzoi, Uzes, Türkmen), Kimaks/Kipchak of middle Enisey of Ob, and Kirghiz. Ogur group is distinguished from Oguz Türkic people that they had Y mutated to J (DJ).

1169

Prince of Suzdal, Andrei Bogoliubskii, sacked Kiev, then moved seat of Great Prince to Vladimir, capital of Suzdal

1070

Turks in Karahanli State engage in cultural and scientific activities. Turkish written with Uighur and Arabic alphabets becomes literary language and literature spread for the first time. Karahanli people exchange with Gazneli and other state sultans in Turkish written in Uighur letters

1070

Most ancient monument of Islam era in Türkic is "Kutadgu Blig" written by Yusuf Has Hacib in 1069-1070 in Uighur and Arabic letters about ideal administration system of a state

1071

Kengeres, in service of Byzantium, desert Emperor Romanus Diogenes V (1067-1071) in favor of Oguz Sultan Alp Arslan.

1072

Beginning of reign of Seljuc Malik Shakh.

1072

Marriage of Maria of Alania to Byzantine emperor Michael VII Duca Parapinaces (1071-1078 d. 1078). Marriage of Georgian king George III with Alanian princess Burduhan

1073

Probably grandson of Mohammed b. Yusuf Kadir Han, Great Khan of Eastern Karahanli State, Mahmut Kashgari work, titled "Divan-i Legat it-Turk" written in Baghdad in 1073-1077, gave examples of dialects of various Türkic peoples ranging from Byzantine borders to borders of China. He wrote about geography of Türkish cities, political and economical life of Türks and their beliefs, gave examples of literary works and ancient epics and folk literature that did not survive

1076

Itil Bulgaria Khan Akhad (1061-1076) deposed, Adam becomes Khan (1076-1118).

1076

Capital of Itil Bulgaria is transferred from city Bulgar to city Bilyar

1077

HARZEMSHAH

1077 - 1231 A.D

Founder - Kudrettin Mehmet (Harzemshah)

Area - Persia, Southern Caucasia, Dagestan, Afghanistan and most of Central Asia. (Total Area - 5,000,000 Km 2)

1078

Daughter of Burduhan and George III is crowned as Queen Tamar on Georgian throne

1087

Kengeres invade Byzantium across Thrace, are driven back, and defeat Alexius Comneus.

1088

Former Khan, Emir Akhad Moskha built in Batyshes' (Russ. Vyatiches) land fort Moskha (Caw), now Moscow (Moskva).

1089

King of Ovs (As, Alans) David Soslan's son marries Queen Tamar

1091

Kipchaks under Togortak and Maniak are allied with Byzantium under Alexius Comnenus, and together crush Kengeres army.

1096

Rabbi Nissim: Seventeen Khazarian communities join nomads (Kengeres, Bulgars, Oguses)

1099

Formation of Karachai-Balkarian (Alan) people completed.

1099

Tatars are beaten by Kerayit Türks' Khan Torgul, son of Khan Cyriacus(Qurjaquz), son of Marcus(Marguz) Buyiruq

1099

Tatars lived since at least 8th cent. on south bank of Kerulen river near Bor Nor to Khingan range. On north bank of Kerulen to Onon river roved neghbouring Mongols. On west bank of Selenga river to Black Irtysh river roved neighboring Naiman Türks.

1099

200,000 Kerayit Türks, Nestorian Christians since 1009, roved neighboring south of Selenga river, on upper Orkhon, to Karakorum. Tatars are confederated as Tokuz Tatars (Nine Tatars) and Otuz Tatars (Thirty Tatars).

1099

Tatars are redoubtable warriors and ranked among fiercest of all people.

1099

Tatars constitute a serious danger to Sino-Tungustic kingdom of Kin. Kin used early Chingiz Khan to attack Tatars from Northwest.

1100

Kipchaks are subdivided into hordes: Dniepr, Don, Lower Itil (Kipchak-Saksin), Eastern (Kipchak).

1103

Established settlement Uchel (Kazan)

1103

W. Kipchaks are raided and defeated on river Suten (Molochnaya) by Voldemir Monomakh and Svyatopolk Izyaslavich of Kiev. 20 Kipchak princes died. Kipchaks retreat from Bug.

1109

Don Kipchaks are invaded and defeated by Rus Princes.

1110

Kipchaks stone monuments spread in Dniepr basin, Crimea, N.Azov, Don, itil, N Caucasus

1111

Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Princes.

1116

Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Rus Princes. Cities Sharukhan, Sugrov and Balin with Alano-Bulgar populations are taken.

1116

(1116-1236) End of Russo-Kipchak wars. Kipchaks ally with Rus Principalities and join in in Rus intestine wars. In 120 years Kipchaks participate in 16 Russo-Russo wars, with only 6 Russo-Kipchak invasions and 6 Kipchak-Russo invasions.

1117

Kipchaks under Khan Otrok retreat to N Caucasus steppes. Kipchak Khan Syrchan remains in Don Steppes. Kipchaks under Khan Otrok on way to N Caucasus destroy Sarkel, last known as Itil Bulgarian domain. Its inhabitants with Besenyos (Bedjenek) and Oguz Tür

1118

Itil Bulgaria Khan Adam (1076-1118) died, Shamgun (Sain) becomes Khan (1118-1135)

1118

Old capital city Bulgar becomes capital of Itil Bulgaria instead of city Bilyar.

1118

Kipchaks make peace with Alans. Khan Otrak has 40K army and is allied with Georgian King David IV the Builder and participates in war with Seljuks. A number of Kipchaks settle in Georgia.

1120

Capital of Itil Bulgaria is again transferred from city Bulgar to city Bilyar

1122

As-Tarkhan established settlement As-Tarkhan (Astrakhan)

1122

Russes defeat Cumans

1123

Scyths/Besenyos (Bedjenek) reported as really wiped out by Byzantine Emperor John II in 1123.

1124

Formation of Kara Kitai Empire in Transoxania.

1130

1130-1150 Kipchaks participate in intercine wars of Rus principalities.

1135

Itil Bulgaria Khan Shamgun (Sain) (1118-1135) died, Khisam Anbal becomes Khan (1135-1164).

1136

Established station Omek (Omsk)

1137

Established station Kazgyn (Novosibirsk)

1150

Bulgars had their own scientists and poets. Jakub ibn-Nogman who wrote "History of Bulgaria" lived in first half of XII century. Scholar Burchan ibn-Bulgari wrote book on rhetoric and medicine.

1152

Kipchak lands are defined in Ipatievsk Chronicle and Chronicle of Igor. Itil, N Black Sea, Sula, Crimea (Suroj and Korsun (Kerch), Tmutarkhan (NW Fore-Caucusus)

1155

Tatars capture Mongol Qutula Khagan's brother Okin-barqaq and cousin Ambaqai and deliver them to Kin, who executed them by nailing to a wooden donkey.

1161

Tatars, allied with Kin, defeat Mongols at Bor Nor, in retaliation for Mongol Qutula Khagan raids, plunder of Kin. First Mongolian royalty is destroyed, Qutula Khagan's sons Jochi and Altan don't have titles, and people reverted to old tribal order.

1161

Once victory made Tatars masters of Eastern Gobi, they incessantly harassed frontiers of Kin.

1164

Itil Bulgaria Khan Khisam Anbal (1135-1164) is captured, Otyak becomes Khan (1164-1178).

1167

Tatars poisoned baghatur Yesugei, father of Chingiz Khan and a chief of Mongolian Kiyat clan, at a friendly meal in steppe. Chingiz Khan is born about 1167 on right bank of Onon, in region of Dulun-Boldaq (Russia).

1171

Besenyos lose control of Moldova to Cumans (1171-1241)

1175

Kipchaks consolidate into 2 confederated hordes, Dniepr and Don. Al Mansuri and An Nuvayri mention Burjogly and Toksoba confederations.

1178

Itil Bulgaria Khan Otyak (1164-1178) died, Gabdulla Chelbir becomes Khan (1178-1225).

1183

GAZNELI EMPIRE

962 - 1183 A.D

Founder - Alp Tekin

Area - from Trans-Oxus to Ganges River, from Caspian to steppes of Pamir (Total Area - 4,700,000 Km 2)

1184

Dniepr Kipchaks are again attacked and their Khan Kobyak is captured. Kobyak is from line Toglyy/Izay/Osoluk/Kobyak

1185

Don Kipchaks are again attacked, unsuccessfully, by Igor Svyatoslavich of Novgorod-Severskiy.

1185

A number of Kipchaks, in 10's K, settle in Georgia in times of George III (1152-1184) and Quinn Tamara (1184-1214).

1195

1195- Kipchaks participate in intercine wars of Rus principalities.

1198

Kin re-oriented and allied with Kerayit Khan Torgul. Torgul, accompanied by Chingiz Khan, attacked from northwest, and Kin from southeast, and defeated Tatars at Bor Nor. Torgul, with Chingiz Khan, chase Tatar chief Megujin SeUltu along Ulja river.

1201

Tatars join anti-Wamg-Khan an Chingiz Khan coalition that included 8 Mongol clans, and Türkic Markit, Oirat, Naiman.

1202

After subjugating Mongolian clan Tayichi'ut, Chingiz Khan turns to Chaghan Tatars and Alchi Tatars. Tatars vanquished and were massacred and were distributed among Mongol tribes. Chingiz Khan choosed two beautiful Tatar women, Yesui and Yesugan.

1202

Further east, Solons, of river Nonni, acknowledge Chingiz Khan as tributaries.

1203

Chingiz Khan is in control of eastern Mongolia. Naimans under Khan Tayang remain in control of western Mongolia.

1203

Türkic tribes Markit, Oirat, Tatars, with rebel Mongolian clans, unite against Chingiz Khan, but he is warned about war by Ongut-Türks' Alaqush-tegin, invited into alliance to outflank Chingiz Khan.

1203

Chingiz Khan calls quriltai and starts a war against Naimans and allies.

1206

Chingiz Khan calls quriltai and is proclaimed Khagan of all Turco-Mongol peoples.

1206

Khazar Jews are reported to use a form of Cyrillic script.

1209

Uighurs, under Barchuq, submit to Mongol rule

1212

End of KARAHANID Empire

932 – 1212A.D

Founder - Saltuk Bugra Han

Area - All Trans-Oxus area including area between Issyk and Balkash Lakes

1218

Chingiz Khan starts western campaign.

1219

Chingiz Khan grants Muyten Bey yarlik for Bashkir? Kipchak? Ulus from Yaik and Agizel (Belaya), tributary of Kama, to Irtish.

1220

Chingiz Khan conquest of Bukhara, Samarkand, Tirmidh and Gurganj

1220

Uchel (Kazan) renamed Gazan

1220

Rus Knyaz George II of Vladimir raids Itil Bulgars, captures Oshel and other cities along Kama. Bilyar city was saved by paying rich ransome

1221

Chingiz Khan conquest of Balkh, Merv, Heart and Nishapur.

1222

Defeat of Alans and Kipchaks in first fight against Mongol-Tatars. Mongol-Tatars seizing capital of Alania Magas (Meget).

1223

Itil Bulgaria Khan Gabdulla Chelbir makes a deal with Juchi to help him in taking Khwarezm, Persia and Caucasus in exchange of not attacking Itil Bulgaria

1223

An important Russo-Kipchak force was defeated on , at battle of Kalka.

1223

War councel in Kiev: Kipchak Khan Kotyak Galicia Knyaz Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloy (Brave) Kiev Knyaz Mstislav Romanovich Chernigov Knyaz Mstislav Svyatoslavich Volyn Knyaz Daniil Kursk Knyaz Oleg Smolensk Knyaz Vladimir Former Novgorod Knyaz Vsevolod

1223

80K Russo-Kipchak force was defeated by 20K, 3 tumen force of Subetai on June 16, (May 31?) 1223, at battle of Kalka.

1223

Gabdulla Chelbir collects 24K army, of 5K Kursybays, 3K militia of Dair Tetush, 6K Kazanchies, 10K Bashkorts. Staged at Kermek, NW of Mardan-Sember (Simbirsk), Left bank of Itil. Subetai had 20K Tataro-Mongols, and 50K Turkmen and Kumans.

1223

Second son of Subetai Uran Kytai led a battle at Kermek and ordered a surrender to Gabdulla Chelbir of 38K surviving troops. Subetai lost 4K dead, and ransomed captured in exchange for sheep.

1223

Chingiz Khan army penetration as far as Novgorod.

1225

Itil Bulgaria Khan Gabdulla Chelbir (1178-1225) dies, ?? becomes Khan ()

1227

Juchi dies, Batu becomes Ulus Juchi (Kipchak) Khan (1227-1255)

1227

Cuman prince Barc and 15,000 of his people baptized in Transylvania.

1228

First bishopric of Cumania established in Transylvania and King Béla IV of Hungary assumed title “king of Cumania”

1229

Itil Bulgaria Khan ?? died, Gazi Baradj becomes Khan (1229-1246)

1229

Chingiz Khan dies in 1229, Ogodei becomes Khan (1229-1241).

1235

Eastern Desht-I Kipchak from Altai to Idel are included in Tataro-Mongol Empire Kipchak Kaganaate

1236

5 November 1236 Capital of Itil Bulgaria Bilyar is taken by Batu

1237

Capture of Bulgar city and Voronej by Batu Tataro-Mongols, and subjugation of Bulgar population

1237

Batu founded his capital, Sarai Batu, in city Saksin-Bolgar on lower stretch of Itil. Capital was later moved upstream to Sarai Berke, which at its peak held perhaps 600,000 inhabitants.

1237

Batu Khan becomes ruler of Kipchak Kaganate (Altyn Urdu)

1237

Batu army invades Asses and Kipchaks in N.W. Caspian and N. Caucasus. Leading Kipchak warrior Bachman killed, Khan Kotyan retreat beyond Tanais. Batu starts encircling maneuver going through Burtases, Erzya, Moksha, and Rus.

1237

KIPCHAK KHANATE (ALTYN URDU) (GOLDEN HORDE)

1224 - 1502 A.D

Founder - Batur Han

Area - Eastern Europe, Western Ural Area, Crimea and area to north of Itil

1238

Capture of Moscow, Vladimir and Suzdal.

1239

King Béla IV of Hungary granted asylum to Cumans and their prince Kuthen, who had earlier unsuccessfully tried organize Rus resistance to Mongols

1239

Assimilation of Alania into Ulus Juchi

1240

Batu Khan controls Kipchak, Bulgar, Rus Principalities

1240

Batu Khan sack and burn city of Kiev in 1241, and subjugate S.Slavic population

1240

Türkic tribes concentrated on animal husbandry in steppes, while their subject peoples, Russ, Mordvinians, Greeks, Georgians, and Armenians, contributed tribute

1240

Cumans' leader Kuthen, considered a dangerous alien, is murdered. Cumans left Hungary but resettled there by Béla IV in 1245.

1241

Death of Ogodei (1229-1241), Shiramon becomes Khan (1241-1242), then Toragana (Regent) (1242-1246)

1241

Mongols defeat Hungarians and European knights.

1241

Cumans lose control of Moldova to Mongols (1241-1286 )

1242

End of Daghestani Khazar kingdom.

1243

Great Prince Yaroslav II of Vladimir calls a meeting of Rus princes, suggests recognizing Khan Batu as Tsar, and concluding a treaty with Bordjugins clan of Batu, to find a protection from conquering by Teutons and Lithuania.

1243

City Saksin-Bolgar is renamed Sarai Batu

1243

MONGOL EMPIRE

1229 – 1405A.D

Founder - Chingiz Khan

Area – From Mideterranian to Pacific, from Baltic to Indian Ocean

1246

Guük becomes Mongol Khan (1246-1248), then Oghul Ghaimish (Regent) (1248-1251)

1246

Itil Bulgaria Khan Gazi Baradj (1229-1246) died.

1246

City Nur-Suvar destroyed (922-1246). Present name Tatarskiy (Sham-Suar).

1248

Appointment of metropolitan for Khanbalik (Peking)

1249

Establishment of Kipchak Türkic Mamluk dynasty in Egypt.

1249

1249-1345 Date of inscriptions on Nestorian gravestones near Bishkek

1250

City Bolgary became most important trade and craft center of Kipchak Khanate

1250

Kipchaks spoke a Türkic language whose most important surviving record is Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak, Latin, and Persian, compiled by Christian missionaries

1250

Presence in Egypt of Kipchak-speaking Mamluks also stimulated compilation of Kipchak-Arabic dictionaries and grammars written in Egypt and Syria

1250

Béla IV's son, future Stephen V, married Cuman princess, and, under rule of their son (Ladislas IV [László]; 1272–90), Cuman influence in Hungarian affairs was great

1250

Cumans did not completely assimilate into Hungarian society for centuries

1250

Bulgars had their own scientists and poets. Poem by Kul-Gali "Tale about Yusuf" (13-th century) was well known far from Bulgaria and greatly influenced development of Bulgarian and Tatar literature

1251

Alexander Nevsky comes to Sarai Batu, befriended and bebrothered Sartaq, become his anda, and an adopted son of Khan Batu. Aleksnder returns with Tatar army that defeats Teutons. Aleksander receives yarlyk for Rus' Great Prince, in vassalage of Kipchak Khanate

1251

Rus is allied with Kipchak Khanate as an autonomous vassal without loss of culture or religion. Rus' principalities refusing protection of Tatars are eventually captured by Lithuania

1251

Vassalage tax paid by Rus is 5,000 R a year to XV c and 7,000 R after XV c, or 1.6 kg of grain per person in a country of 5 mln.

1251

Mongke becomes Mongol Khan (1251-1258)

1255

Hulegu recaptures Samarkand

1255

First Buddhist-Taoist debate in Karakorum

1255

Kipchak Khan Batu dies (1227-1255), Sartaq the Christian becomes Khan (1255-1257), then Ulagchi the Child (1257-1257)

1257

Kipchak Khan Ulagchi the Child dies (1257-1257), Berke the Moslem becomes Khan (1257-1266)

1258

After Mongke (1251-1258) Ariq-Buqa (1258-1260) becomes Mongol Khan

1258

Second Buddhist-Taoist debate in Karakorum.

1259

Crusader offensive by Ariq-Buqa Khan on Jerusalem. In Ain-Djalud battle noyon Kit-Buga is defeated by Mamluk army

1260

After Ariq-Buqa (1258-1260) Kublai becomes Mongol Khan (1260-1294)

1261

Kipchak Khan Berke exchanges ambassadors with Mamluk Egypt

1262

First war between Kipchak Kaganate and Il Khans

1263

Kipchak Khan Berke alliance with Mamluk Egypt

1263

Kipchak Khanate carried on an extensive trade with Mediterranean peoples, particularly their allies in Mamluk Egypt and Genoese

1265

20,000 horsemen against Byzantium

1266

Kipchak Khan Berke the Moslem dies (1257-1266), Mangu Timur becomes Khan (1266-1280)

1269

50,000 horsemen to help Qaidu

1278

Mongol-Tatars and Rus allies seize Alanian town Dediakov.

1279

Kipchak Khanate Khan Mangu Timur installed Kipchak (Cuman) George Terter I Khan of Danube Bulgaria (1280-1292)

1280

Kipchak Khanate Khan Mangu Timur (1266-1280) dies, Tode Mangu the Moslem becomes Khan (1280-1287)

1281

War between Mamluks and Mongols. Destruction of Mongol fleet off Japanese coast

1286

Mongols lose control of Moldova to Lithuania (1241-1286 )

1287

Kipchak Khanate Khan Tode Mangu the Moslem (1280-1287) dies, Tole Buqa becomes Khan (1287-1290)

1290

Kipchak Khanate Khan Tole Buqa (1287-1290) dies, Tokhtaga becomes Kipchak Khan (1290-1312)

1295

Accession of Ghazan to Il Khanid throne. June 19: Public conversion of Ghazan to Islam.

1297

Adoption by Il Khanid Ghazan of Islamic state symbols.

1299

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

1299 - 1922 A.D

Founder - Osman Bey

Area - Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Anatolia, Caucasia, Crimea, Bessarabia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Hungary, Sudan…Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea were for a time Türkish Lakes (Total Area - 20,000,000 Km 2)

1300

Descendants of Jewish Khazars in Eastern Europe adopt Yiddish language (1300-1500).

1300

Kipchaks live east of Itil and in southern Urals

1300

Kipchaks who settled from Itil to Lower Ilek rivers left modest earthen kurgans with rectangular burials facing east, with a hide or a mummy of harnessed and saddled horse.

1300

Kipchak men grave goods have bark quivers with cut arrows, knifes, flints, and women have bronze or silver earrings, rings, pendants, scissors, bronze mirrors and headdress ornaments (bark tubes "bokks")

1303

Mamluks stop last Mongolian invasion of Syria

1304

Khan Tokhtaga summons Rus princes for meeting in Pereyaslavl to stop feudal infighting and swear allegiance to Kipchak Khan

1309

Hungarian Christian clergy edicts that Catholics cannot marry "Khazars".

1312

After Kipchak Khan Tokhtaga (1290-1312), his nephew Giazetdin-Sultan Mukhammed-Uzbek (Özbeg) (1312-1341) becomes Khan. He gives yarlyks to Rus princes to collect taxes instead of former Tatar baskaks

1315

Kipchak Khan Uzbek summons Prince Yuri III (1303-1325) of Moscow to Sarai Berke. Yuri marries Usbek's sister Konchaka (Russ. Agrafia), becoming brother-in law of Khan Uzbek, and lives 2 years in Sarai Berke

1320

Kipchak Khan Uzbek gives princess (Tughay? D. 1348) to Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad of Bahri Mamluk dynasty (1293-1341) as wife

1321

Lithuanian Duke Gedemin defeats coalition of Kipchak Rus vassal princes and captures Kiev, leaving his vassal prince as governor

1324

Lithuanian Duke Gedemin annexes all Black Rus (Ukraine) and Podlyakhia into his Lithuanian domains

1327

Kipchak Khan Uzbek sent 50,000 horsemen against Prince Ivan I Kalita (Moneybag) (1328-1340) of Moscow

1327

Ivan I Kalita with Tatar help subdued anti-Mongol uprising in Tver. Thousands of Tverians were sent to China to join Rus volunteer recruits, conscripts, and captured prisoners serving as special guards for Mongol Emperor

1334

Partition of Chagatai Khaganate

1335

End of UIGUR EMPIRE

740 - 1335 A.D

Founder - Kutlug Bilgekul Khan

Area - Central Asia and Northern Mongolia

1336

Birth of Timurlan

1339

Join campaign of Ivan I Kalita and Khan Uzbek to take Smolensk.

1339

Kipchak Khanate is gradually Islamized

1340

Grand Prince Ivan I Kalita with all Rus princes called to gather in Sarai Berke. Khan Uzbeg approves Ivan’s son as next Rus Grand Prince

1341

After Kipchak Khan Uzbek (1312-1341), Tini Beg is murdered (1341-1341), Jani Beg I becomes Kipchak Khan (1341-1356)

1341

Dmitry (future Donskoi), Great Prince of Vladimir and Moscow, son of Ivan I Kalita, mints “denga” coins with "Es-Soltan-El-Egzem" on one side and Seal Of Great Prince Dm on another side

1346

Black Death struck in 1346-47

1349

Black Death struck in 1349. Beetwen 1364 and 1425. Rus looses 1/3 of population

1349

Hungarian Jews, partly of Khazar origin, resettle in Poland and Austria.

1352

Black Death struck in 1352-1353

1356

Kipchak Khan Jani Beg I (1341-1356), last member of House of Juchi to rule over Kipchak Kaganate, dies, Berdi Beg becomes Khan (1356-1359)

1359

Kipchak Khan Berdi Beg (1356-1359) dies, Qulpa becomes Khan (1359-1360)

1360

Kipchak Khan Qulpa (1359-1360) dies, Nauruz Beg becomes Khan (1360)

1360

Kipchak Khan Nauruz Beg (1359-1360) dies, Hizr becomes Khan (1360-1361). General Khan Mamai controls western half of Kipchak Khanate

1360

Black Death struck in 1360

1361

City Bolgary was destroyed by Ak Urdu Khan Bulak-Timur.

1361

Kipchak Khan Hizr (Ak Urdu - White Horde) dies, Temur Hoja becomes Khan (1361-1362)

1361

Gazan (Kazan) renamed Bolgar-al-Djadid (New Bolgar)

1362

Kipchak Khan Temur Hoja (1361-1362) dies, Murad becomes Khan. He gives yarlyk to Dmitri of Moscow (future Donskoi), who is also a favorite of rebellious Khan Mamai

1364

After Kipchak Khan Murad (1362-1364), Abdullah (1364 d1370) becomes Khan, civil war and multiple khans following him

1364

Black Death struck in 1364-1366

1369

After Kipchak Khan Abdullah (1362 d1370), Jani Beg II becomes Khan (1369-1370)

1369

EMPIRE OF TIMUR KHAN

1369 - 1501 A.D

Founder - Timur Gurgani

Area - West, Balkans; North, Volga, South, Indian Ocean; East, Central Asia

1370

After Kipchak Khan Jani Beg II (1369-1370) dies, Mohammed Buluq-Khan becomes Khan (1370 d)

1370

Mohammed Buluq-Khan (1370 d) dies, Tulun Beg-Khanum (fem) becomes Khan (1370-1373)

1371

Grand Prince Mikhail again goes and obtains yarlyk from pretender Khan Mamai, while Dmitri obtains competing Grand Prince yarlyk from Khanum Tulun Beg at Sarai Berke

1372

1372-75 Renewal of war between Tver, joined with Lithuania allied with Khan Mamai, and Moscow, allied with Sarai Berke Tatars. Dmitry of Moscow concludes separatist peace with Lithuania. Pretender Khan Mamai sacks Riazan in revenge (1373)

 

1373

Tulun Beg-Khanum (fem) (1370-1373) dies, Ai Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1373 d 1376)

1373

Dmitry of Moscow repulsed Khan Mamai punitive incursion

1374

Black Death struck in 1374

1375

Kipchak Khan Ai Beg (1373 d 1376) dies, Hajji Cherkes (in Sarai Berke) becomes Khan (1375-1376)

1376

Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow open campaign against Kazan

1376

Hajji Cherkes (in Sarai Berke) (1375-1376) dies, Urus-Khan becomes Kipchak Khan (1376-1378)

1377

Khan of Ak Urdu Tokhtamysh assumes control of Kipchak Kaganate.

1378

Urus-Khan (1376-1378) dies, Arab Shaykh (restored)(in Sarai Berke) becomes Kipchak Khan (1378-1379)

1379

Arab Shaykh (restored)(in Sarai Berke) dies, Mamai becomes Kipchak Khan (1379-1380)

1380

Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow and Rus princes in 1380 won a signal victory over Kipchak Army under rebelious general Mamai at Battle of Kulikovo

1380

Tokhtamish, son of a minor Tatar prince, won fight with Mamai and ascended throne of Kipchak Khaganate. Mamai dies, Tokhtamish becomes Kipchak Khan (1380-1397)

1382

Tokhtamish sack Moscow, restored Rus vassalage

1388

Tamerlane (1336 - 1405) assumes title of Sultan

1393

Tamerlane captures Baghdad and Shiraz.

1395

Tamerlane defeated Tokhtamish, demolished Tana, Hajji-tarkhan (Astrakhan) and burnt Sarai Berke. He systematically annihilated Sarai Berke, Azov, and Kaffa.

1395

Tamerlane, who invaded Horde's territory in 1395, destroyed Sarai Berke, and deported most of region's skilled craftsmen to Central Asia, thus depriving Horde of its technological edge over resurgent Moscovy. Ak Horde never recovered.

1395

Tamerlane defeats Tokhtamysh. Türkish Emir Edigu takes over control of Kipchak Kaganate.

1395

Tamerlane army invasion in Northern Caucasus, mass murder of Alanian population

1396

Black Death struck in 1396

1398

Emergence of Great Nogay Horde of Ak Urdu's Temnik Nogay, inbetween Itil and Yaik rivers

1398

After Kipchak Khan Tokhtamish (1380-1397) dies, Temur Qutlugh becomes Khan (1398-1400)

1399

Lithuania fought and lost a major battle against Golden Horde in Crimea in 1399

1400

After Kipchak Khan Temur Qutlugh (1398-1400) dies, Shadi Beg becomes Kipchak Khan (1400-1407)

1400

Tamerlane defeats Mamlukes in Syria

1402

War between Tamerlane and Ottoman Empire.

1405

Death of Tamerlane (1336 - 1405), Shah Rukh becomes Turkestan Khan(1405-1447)

1407

Shadi Beg (1400-1407) dies, Pulad becomes Kipchak Khan (1407-1412)

1412

After Kipchak Khan Pulad (1407-1412) dies, Jalal Al-Din becomes Khan (1412-1413)

1413

After Kipchak Khan Jalal Al-Din (1412-1413) dies, Karim Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1413-1414)

1414

After Kipchak Khan Karim Berdi (1413-1414) dies, Kebek becomes Kipchak Khan (1414-1417)

1417

After Kipchak Khan Kebek (1414-1417) dies, Jabbar Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1417-1419)

1419

After Kipchak Khan Jabbar Berdi dies, Ulugh Mehmed becomes Kipchak Khan (1419-1420 d 1434)

1419

Death of Edigu. Beginning of civil war in Kipchak Kaganate

1420

After Kipchak Khan Ulugh Mehmed dies, Devlat Berdi becomes Kipchak Khan (1420-1421)

1421

After Kipchak Khan Devlat Berdi dies, Baraq becomes Kipchak Khan (1421-1428)

1423

Crimean Khaganate separates from Kipchak Khaganate under Khan Mengli Girei

1423

After Kipchak Khan Baraq dies, Kuchuk Mehmed becomes Kipchak Khan (1423(36?)-1459)

1428

After Kipchak Khan Kuchuk Mehmed dies, Ulugh Mehmed (restored) becomes Kipchak Khan (1428-1434)

1430

Kazan Khaganate separates from Kipchak Khaganate.

1430

Hajji Girei formed Crimean Khaganate

1431

Bolgar-al-Djadid (Kazan) renamed Kazan

1434

After Kipchak Khan Ulugh Mehmed (restored) dies, Sayyid Ahmad I becomes Kipchak Khan (1434-1436)

1432

Kipchak Khan Ulugh Mehmed's envoy enthroned Vasili II on throne of Moscow instead of Vladimir. This is last time that Tatar envoy participated in coronation of Grand Prince of Russia

1436

Formation of Khanate of Kazan

1438

?... died, Ulugh Mohammed becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1438-1446 )

1440

Ulugh Beg (1393-1449), a preeminent astronomer and mathematician of fifteenth century, published a new star catalog, correcting many errors in Ptolemy's work

1443

Formation of Crimean Khanate

1446

After Kipchak Khan Ulugh Mohammed died, Mahmudek becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1446-1466)

1447

Shah Rukh dies (1405-1447), Tamerlane grandson Ulugh Beg becomes Turkestan Khan (1447-1449)

1459

After Kipchak Khan Sayyid Ahmad I dies, Mahmud becomes Kipchak Khan (1459-1466)

1466

Mahmudek died, Khalil becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1466-1467 )

1466

After Kipchak Khan Mahmud dies, Ahmad becomes Kipchak Khan (1466-1481)

1466

Formation of Astrakhan Khanate

1467

Khalil died, Ibrahim becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1467-1479)

1469

Kazan Khanate becomes a Rus vassal

1470

Struck last bilingual Tatar-Russian coins

1479

Ibrahim died, Ilham becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1479-1485 d. 1487 )

1480

Ivan III of Moscow "liberates" Russia by refusing to pay tribute to Kipchak Khan, but continues collecting trubute taxes

1481

Ahmad dies, Sayyid Ahmad II becomes Kipchak Khan (1481-1502)

1485

Ilham replaced, Mohammed Amin becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1485-1486 d. 1518 )

1486

Mohammed Amin replaced, Ilham (restored) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1486-1487 )

1487

Ilham (restored) died, Mohammed Amin (restored) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1487-1496 d. 1518 )

1490

Kazakh Empire is established in Central Asian steppes

1496

Mohammed Amin (restored) died, Mamuk becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1496-1497 )

1497

Mamuk died, Abdul-Latif becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1497-1502 )

1501

End of EMPIRE OF TIMUR KHAN

1369 - 1501 A.D

Founder - Timur Gurgani

Area - West, Balkans; North, Volga, South, Indian Ocean; East, Central Asia

1502

Abdul-Latif died, Mohammed Amin (re-restored) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1502-1518 )

1502

Mengli Girei of Crimea destroyed Kipchak Kaganate capital Sarai Berke. Crimean Khanate seizes leadership of Kipchak Kaganate as a successor of Sarai Berke, starting a disintegration spiral

1502

End of KIPCHAK KHANATE (ALTYN URDU) (GOLDEN HORDE)

1224 - 1502 A.D

Founder - Batur Han

Area - Eastern Europe, Western Ural Area, Crimea and area to north of Itil

1504

Kazan Khanate threw off Rus subjugation

1518

Mohammed Amin (re-restored) died, Shah 'Ali (see Kasimov) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1518-1521 d. 1567 )

1521

Shah 'Ali (see Kasimov) died, Sahib Girai becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1521-1525 )

1525

Sahib Girai died, Safa Girai becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1525-1532 d. 1549 )

1526

EMPIRE OF BABUR

1526 - 1858 A.D

Founder - Babur Shah

Area - Afghanistan and India (Total Area - 2,700,000 Km 2)

1532

Safa Girai replaced by Jan 'Ali (see Kasimov) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1532-1535 )

1535

Jan 'Ali (see Kasimov) died, Safa Girai (restored) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1535-1546 d. 1549 )

1546

Shah 'Ali (restored) died, Safa Girai (re-restored) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1546-1549 )

1546

Safa Girai (restored) died, Shah 'Ali (restored) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1546 d. 1567 )

1549

Safa Girai (re-restored) died, Utemish Girai becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1549-1551 )

1551

Utemish Girai died, Shah 'Ali (re-restored)(see Kasimov) becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1551-1552 d. 1567 )

1552

Shah 'Ali (re-restored) (1551-1552 d. 1567 ) captured, Yadiger Mohammed becomes Kazan Khanate Khan (1552)

1552

Rus Ivan IV of Moscow conquers Kazan Khanate and subjugates Türkic population.

1554

Capture of Astrakhan Khanate by Russ and subjugation of Türkic population. Start of methodical destruction of Sarai-Batu city

1555

Beginning of "Friendship" treaties between Moscow and Great Nogay horde turning horde into a mercenary (Kazak) state.

1558

Beçens (Beçen/Becen "Peçenek") are still living in same area in 16th c, river Kama [branch of Volga] is called Vachen, live in wilderness without house or habitation

1558

Beginning of Russian penetration of Central Asia.

1563

1563-98 reign of last Shaybanid ruler of Siberian Khanate, Kuchum Khan

1571

Crimean Tatars sack Moscow

1574

Ivan IV (1576-1584 ) mints bilingual Tatar-Russian coins, struck at a time of no Tatar vassalage

1590

Kazakh Empire divides into three hordes: Great Horde (east), Middle Horde (center), and Lesser Horde(west).

1650

1st half 17 century Balkarians and Karachais first mentioned in Russian documents.

1662

Bashkir revolt of Sary Mergen against Russian domination (1662-1664).

1662

Bashkir revolt of Seit against Russian domination(1681-1684).

1680

1680-1718 Rule of Khan Teuke over reunited Kazakh hordes

1690

End of use in Hungary of Türkic 32 character alphabet with 4 suplemental letters a,f,h,l from Greek.

1690

2nd half 17 - beg. 18 century Kabardins populate plains of Alania

1704

Bashkir revolt of Aldar and Kusüm against Russian domination (1704-1711).

1735

Bashkir revolt of Kilmyak, Akai and Yusup against Russian domination(1735-1736).

1737

Bashkir revolt of Tülkuchur, Bepen, Kusyap and Seit-bey against Russian domination(1737-1738).

1739

Bashkir revolt of Karasakal, Allanziangul and Mandar against Russian domination(1739-1740).

1773

Refer to Bashkir Encyclopedia for multiple Bashkir revolts, including Pugachev.

1775

Rissian army destroys Sich of Zaporozhian Cossaks on an Island on Dniepr

1778

Catherine I of Rissia deports Tatar speaking Crimean Goths to Azov area. They establish Mariupol (akin to Mariampol near Bakhchisarai)

1804

9 May 1804 Kabardins, Balkarians, Karachais and Ossetians battle with troops of general G. I. Glazenap on river Chegem.

1810

Kabardins and Balkarians encounter with troops of general Bulgakov.

1822

General A. P. Ermolov's raid in canyons of Balkaria.

1822

20 October 1822 Karachais battle with troops of general G. A. Emanuel at Hasauk. Karachai included in Russia.

1858

End of EMPIRE OF BABUR

1526 - 1858 A.D

Founder - Babur Shah

Area - Afghanistan and India (Total Area - 2,700,000 Km 2)

1893

B. Tomsen, dean of comparative linguistics at Cponhagen University deciphers Orkhon Inscriptions

1922

End of OTTOMAN EMPIRE

1299 - 1922 A.D

Founder - Osman Bey

Area - Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea were for a time Türkish Lakes. (Total Area - 20,000,000 Km 2)

 

Notes.

1. One of Chinese derogatory monikers for Huns, with a meaning “ferocious slaves”. There were more respectful names for Huns in Chinese, like “western nomads”, etc. Chinese also had plenty of derogatory terms for themselves, but, unlike “Hsiung-nu”, these terms are not used to designate Chinese in the scientific literature.

 2. One of a number of versions that can be found in the literature.

 3. This is a nice pearl of the racial attitude found in a multitude of scientific works. Romans, Goths, and Persians are beautiful and merciful blessings, and Huns, Avars, and Tatars are ugly and cruel menace. That did not prevent multitudes on both sides from marrying each other and producing mixed populations, including attractive offsprings to become Caesars, Basileuses, Kings, Tsars, Khans and Sultans. The speculation on 'bulgha' is an another example of a scientific pearl, not unlike the Chinese’ selection of the hieroglyphs to denote a negative attitude. But in this scientific thought we go a step further, proclaiming a negative meaning for a self-ethnonym.

4. Otrok (Russ. "son, boy”) could be a Rus' nickname for the young Kipchak Khan, or a semantical distortion. Other sources give his name as Khan Otrak.

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