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ALANS

DATELINE

Time

Events

650 BC

Asses are first mentioned in Assirian sources as the Scythian name Ishkuza = Ish-Oguz, where Ish is a variation of a word As

300 BC

From Chinese sources Alans are listed as one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favored by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C. (ToOD 146).

35 AD

35-36 AD Alan participation in Ibero-Parthian (Artabanus II) war on side of Iberia.

50

1st century AD (first half) Alans mentioned by written sources of Ancient Rome (?) for the first time.

72

Alans invade Transcaucasus

124

Dionysius Periegetes (the Guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii

135

Alan campaign in Transcaucasus and Media

139

Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Tr. agach ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) live Huns

150

Hou Han shu: In China, Alans were earlier known as Yancai ("Vast Steppe"). They have about 100,000 bowmen and same way of life and clothes as Kangju and identical with Ta Yüeh-chih. Yancai changed its name to kingdom of Alanliao with capital Di.

150

Hou Han shu: Alans are a dependency of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins). The climate is temperate. Wax trees, pines, and aconite are plentiful

150

Mid. 2nd century Alans defeated by Roman army at Olvia

225

Hou Han shu: Alans were vassals of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins). Now they are no longer vassals

360

Huns cross Volga and attack Alans. Part of Alans retreat to N. Caucasus, part is absorbed in Huns Horde, part retreat to N. Donets. Most likely, after conquest a part of Bulgars joins Huns, and a part remains

370

370-376 War between Alans and Goths.

370

Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais and N. Caspian steppes. Living there Alans join Huns.

372

Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns to Europe

375

Battle between Alans under Balamber (Jordanes, XLVIII, 249) and Ostrogoths at river Erac (present Tiligul). After death of Vitimir young Vidirix bacame a King. Alatey and Safrac ruled under his name. Ostrogoths retreated to Dniestr.

375

Ammianus Marcellinus: "After his (Hermanaric) departure, Vitimir was made a King, and resisted Halans for some time… But after many defeats he suffered, he was subdued by armes and died in battle"

376

Huns captured Bessarabia. Alans remained in Dacia. Vestgoths and Ostrogoths, defeated by Huns and Alans, retreated to Danube

378

Oldest son of Hun's Bulyumar (Balamber) Alyp-bi defeats Sadumts (Goths/Scandinavians), crossed Danube and with Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Alans defeats 80K Byzantium army at Andrianopole.

380

New Roman Emperor Theodosius settles Gothic problem diplomatically. Goths become federates, and Alans move north

380

380-395 Alans clear Dacia and Bessarabia from Vestgoths, Taifals, Gepids, Burgunds and other peoples. Huns went to Pontic steppes

395

Hun campaign in Transcaucasus and even raid Syria. Alans, Ostrogoths and Geruls, retreated earlier to Transcaucasus, subordinate to Huns

400

Alans and Bolgars live between Itil and Don

402

Ruler of Western Empire Stilihon allied with Huns and Alans, who help Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes

405

New help by Huns and Alans to Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes (Sweves).

406

Alans join Vandals in invasion to Gallia (modern France)

409

Alans and Vandals moving from Gallia to Spain

451

451.06.15 "Battle of Peoples" at Catalaun ravine near present Trua. On Atilla's side are Huns, Geruls, and part of Franks Ostrogoths, on Aecius side Roman legions recruited from Gaul and Germany, Vestgoths, Burgunds, Franks, Armorician Alans headed by Sanhiban. No definite result.

454

Jordanes: You could see Goth with lances, Gepids with mad with sword, Rug breaking spears in his wounds, and Swev bravely acting with bat, and Hun with arrow, Alan with heavy, Gerule with light weapons

454

Atilla's son Ellak tried to suppress rebellion, was defeated and died in battle. Remains of Ellak's army retreated east of Carpathians. Two other sons Dengizik and Ernak remained in Dacia and Bessarabia. Alans, led by ruler Kandak were forced to go to Dobrudja

468

468 - 469 Danube war between Huns and Byzantium. Bel-Kermek (Hernach) after Dengizik death leads army. Byzantium beats off invasion with difficulty. Byzantium mercenary army consists of Slavs and Alans commanded by Aspar, whose father was Alan

468

"in some respect Danube war of 468 - 469 was a war of Alans and Ants against their former masters, Huns." (G.V.Vernadsky). After Byzantian victory Huns left Dacia and Bessarabia. These provinces opened for Slavic colonization.

550

Mid. 6th century. Period of king Sarosius' government in Alania. Establishment of tight contacts between Alania and Byzanthia.

551

Zachariah Ritor: Bulgars and Alans are mentioned once as settled populations with towns, and once as nomads. He points that Bulgarian towns, inhabited lands are immediately next to Caspian gates, while nomads are in steppes north of Caucasus

551

Z. Ritor: "Thirteen peoples Avnagur (Onogur), Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Hasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasir, Kulas, Abdel and Hephtalit live in tents, earn their living on meat of livestock and fish, of wild animals and by their weapons."

558

Gumilev: Vars (Ugrian tribe, related to Hungarian ancestors Ogors/Ugrs which lived between Itil and Ural rivers, and to Hungarians living in Bashkiria up to XIII c.) and Huni (Khionites = Sarmato-Alanians), both from North of Aral Sea, become known as Avars.

566

Between 566 and 571 Istemi Djabgu subjugated peoples Banajar, Balanjar (Belenjer) and Khazar. Baranjar (Balanjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bolgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Turks closest allies and assistants.

651

With loss of W.Khaganate rule, former confedrate Khazaria with attached Bolgar Kutugurs, Alans, Slavs and Itil Bolgars gain independence. Khazars keep Khagan from dynasty Ashina.

651

Defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euphrates battle

655

Gumilev: Khazars cooperate with Iranian speaking Alans

670

Bat-Boyan Bolgars are defeated by Khazars. Khazars recover territory with east Bolgar (Utugur) and Alan populations.

682

Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes "Kingdom of Huns" (Belenjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Baranjar (Balanjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bolgars, subordinated to Khazars

722

Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737) First campaign of Arabian troops led by Zh. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars

723

Khazars lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar

735

Campaign of Arabian military leader Mervan Kru in Alania. Alanian king Itaz

772

War between Greeks and Bulgars. Khazaria unites with Alania

895

Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power

910

First missions of Christian preachers from Byzantine to Alania. Establishing Alan arch-episcopate. Peter a first arch-bishop of Alania

920

Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or As), Oghuz, Byzantines, Kengeres and Kara Bolgars

930

Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage

1065

Visit of Alanian king Durguleit Great to Georgian king Bagrat IV in Kutais

1072

Marriage of Maria of Alania with Byzantine emperor Michael VII Duca Parapinaces (1071-1078 d. 1078). Marriage of Georgian king George III with Alanian princess Burduhan

1089

King of Ovs (As, Alans) David Soslan's son marries Queen Tamar

1099

Formation of Karachai-Balkarian (Alan) people completed.

1116

Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Russian Princes. Cities Sharukhan, Sugrov and Balin with Alano-Bulgar populations are taken

1118

Kipchaks make peace with Alans. Khan Otrak has 40K army and is allied with Georgian King David IV the Builder, and participates in war with Seljuks. A number of Kipchaks settle in Georgia

1222

Defeat of Alans and Kipchaks in first fight against Mongol-Tatars. Mongol-Tatars seizing capital of Alania Magas (Meget)

1239

Assimilation of Alania into Ulus Juchi

1278

Mongol-Tatars and Russians seize Alanian town Dediakov.

1304

Byzantines recruit Caucasus Alans as proxy allies

1395

Tamerlan army invasion in Northern Caucasus, mass murder of Alanian population

1690

2nd half 17 - beg. 18 century Kabardins populate plains of Alania

1890

Alans, like Scythians and Sarmatians, are suggested to be re-classified as Ossetian/Iranian/Indoeuropean speakers, and are titled only “Iranian-speaking Alanians”

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