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650 BC

Asses are first mentioned in Assirian sources as the Scythian name Ishkuza = Ish-Oguz, where Ish is a variation of a word As

300 BC

From Chinese sources Alans are listed as one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favored by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C. (ToOD 146).

35 AD

35-36 AD Alan participation in Ibero-Parthian (Artabanus II) war on side of Iberia.


1st century AD (first half) Alans mentioned by written sources of Ancient Rome (?) for the first time.


Alans invade Transcaucasus


Dionysius Periegetes (the Guide) Orbis terrae descriptio map showing Huns (Unni), Caspii, Massagets, Sacii, Alani, Scyths, Hyrcanii, Sarmats, Taurii


Alan campaign in Transcaucasus and Media


Ptolemy (83?-161? AD) writes that in European Sarmatia ‘below Agathyrsi (Akatsirs, Tr. agach ers ‘forest people’) live Savari (Türkic Suvars), between Basternae and Rhoxolani (Tr. Uraksy Alans, i.e. ‘Alans-farmers’) live Huns


Hou Han shu: In China, Alans were earlier known as Yancai ("Vast Steppe"). They have about 100,000 bowmen and same way of life and clothes as Kangju and identical with Ta Yüeh-chih. Yancai changed its name to kingdom of Alanliao with capital Di.


Hou Han shu: Alans are a dependency of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins). The climate is temperate. Wax trees, pines, and aconite are plentiful


Mid. 2nd century Alans defeated by Roman army at Olvia


Hou Han shu: Alans were vassals of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins). Now they are no longer vassals


Huns cross Volga and attack Alans. Part of Alans retreat to N. Caucasus, part is absorbed in Huns Horde, part retreat to N. Donets. Most likely, after conquest a part of Bulgars joins Huns, and a part remains


370-376 War between Alans and Goths.


Huns control N. Pontic, Tanais and N. Caspian steppes. Living there Alans join Huns.


Don Alans crushed by Huns. Part of Alans joins Huns to Europe


Battle between Alans under Balamber (Jordanes, XLVIII, 249) and Ostrogoths at river Erac (present Tiligul). After death of Vitimir young Vidirix bacame a King. Alatey and Safrac ruled under his name. Ostrogoths retreated to Dniestr.


Ammianus Marcellinus: "After his (Hermanaric) departure, Vitimir was made a King, and resisted Halans for some time… But after many defeats he suffered, he was subdued by armes and died in battle"


Huns captured Bessarabia. Alans remained in Dacia. Vestgoths and Ostrogoths, defeated by Huns and Alans, retreated to Danube


Oldest son of Hun's Bulyumar (Balamber) Alyp-bi defeats Sadumts (Goths/Scandinavians), crossed Danube and with Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Alans defeats 80K Byzantium army at Andrianopole.


New Roman Emperor Theodosius settles Gothic problem diplomatically. Goths become federates, and Alans move north


380-395 Alans clear Dacia and Bessarabia from Vestgoths, Taifals, Gepids, Burgunds and other peoples. Huns went to Pontic steppes


Hun campaign in Transcaucasus and even raid Syria. Alans, Ostrogoths and Geruls, retreated earlier to Transcaucasus, subordinate to Huns


Alans and Bolgars live between Itil and Don


Ruler of Western Empire Stilihon allied with Huns and Alans, who help Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes


New help by Huns and Alans to Stilihon to fight off attack of German tribes (Sweves).


Alans join Vandals in invasion to Gallia (modern France)


Alans and Vandals moving from Gallia to Spain


451.06.15 "Battle of Peoples" at Catalaun ravine near present Trua. On Atilla's side are Huns, Geruls, and part of Franks Ostrogoths, on Aecius side Roman legions recruited from Gaul and Germany, Vestgoths, Burgunds, Franks, Armorician Alans headed by Sanhiban. No definite result.


Jordanes: You could see Goth with lances, Gepids with mad with sword, Rug breaking spears in his wounds, and Swev bravely acting with bat, and Hun with arrow, Alan with heavy, Gerule with light weapons


Atilla's son Ellak tried to suppress rebellion, was defeated and died in battle. Remains of Ellak's army retreated east of Carpathians. Two other sons Dengizik and Ernak remained in Dacia and Bessarabia. Alans, led by ruler Kandak were forced to go to Dobrudja


468 - 469 Danube war between Huns and Byzantium. Bel-Kermek (Hernach) after Dengizik death leads army. Byzantium beats off invasion with difficulty. Byzantium mercenary army consists of Slavs and Alans commanded by Aspar, whose father was Alan


"in some respect Danube war of 468 - 469 was a war of Alans and Ants against their former masters, Huns." (G.V.Vernadsky). After Byzantian victory Huns left Dacia and Bessarabia. These provinces opened for Slavic colonization.


Mid. 6th century. Period of king Sarosius' government in Alania. Establishment of tight contacts between Alania and Byzanthia.


Zachariah Ritor: Bulgars and Alans are mentioned once as settled populations with towns, and once as nomads. He points that Bulgarian towns, inhabited lands are immediately next to Caspian gates, while nomads are in steppes north of Caucasus


Z. Ritor: "Thirteen peoples Avnagur (Onogur), Avgar, Sabir, Burgar, Alan, Kurtargar, Avar, Hasar, Dirmar, Sirurgur, Bagrasir, Kulas, Abdel and Hephtalit live in tents, earn their living on meat of livestock and fish, of wild animals and by their weapons."


Gumilev: Vars (Ugrian tribe, related to Hungarian ancestors Ogors/Ugrs which lived between Itil and Ural rivers, and to Hungarians living in Bashkiria up to XIII c.) and Huni (Khionites = Sarmato-Alanians), both from North of Aral Sea, become known as Avars.


Between 566 and 571 Istemi Djabgu subjugated peoples Banajar, Balanjar (Belenjer) and Khazar. Baranjar (Balanjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bolgars. Khazar influence increased as Khazars became Turks closest allies and assistants.


With loss of W.Khaganate rule, former confedrate Khazaria with attached Bolgar Kutugurs, Alans, Slavs and Itil Bolgars gain independence. Khazars keep Khagan from dynasty Ashina.


Defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Abd Al Rahman Arabs in Euphrates battle


Gumilev: Khazars cooperate with Iranian speaking Alans


Bat-Boyan Bolgars are defeated by Khazars. Khazars recover territory with east Bolgar (Utugur) and Alan populations.


Albanian missionary bishop Israel describes "Kingdom of Huns" (Belenjer) capital Varachan located north of Derbent, and Tangri cult of Northern Dagestan Baranjar (Balanjar) = Onogur = Utigur Bolgars, subordinated to Khazars


Second Khazar - Arab war (722-737) First campaign of Arabian troops led by Zh. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus against Alans and Khazars


Khazars lose Balanjar to Arabs, move capital to Samandar


Campaign of Arabian military leader Mervan Kru in Alania. Alanian king Itaz


War between Greeks and Bulgars. Khazaria unites with Alania


Alans and Bulgars freed from Khazar power


First missions of Christian preachers from Byzantine to Alania. Establishing Alan arch-episcopate. Peter a first arch-bishop of Alania


Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or As), Oghuz, Byzantines, Kengeres and Kara Bolgars


Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic marriage


Visit of Alanian king Durguleit Great to Georgian king Bagrat IV in Kutais


Marriage of Maria of Alania with Byzantine emperor Michael VII Duca Parapinaces (1071-1078 d. 1078). Marriage of Georgian king George III with Alanian princess Burduhan


King of Ovs (As, Alans) David Soslan's son marries Queen Tamar


Formation of Karachai-Balkarian (Alan) people completed.


Don Kipchaks are again invaded and defeated by Russian Princes. Cities Sharukhan, Sugrov and Balin with Alano-Bulgar populations are taken


Kipchaks make peace with Alans. Khan Otrak has 40K army and is allied with Georgian King David IV the Builder, and participates in war with Seljuks. A number of Kipchaks settle in Georgia


Defeat of Alans and Kipchaks in first fight against Mongol-Tatars. Mongol-Tatars seizing capital of Alania Magas (Meget)


Assimilation of Alania into Ulus Juchi


Mongol-Tatars and Russians seize Alanian town Dediakov.


Byzantines recruit Caucasus Alans as proxy allies


Tamerlan army invasion in Northern Caucasus, mass murder of Alanian population


2nd half 17 - beg. 18 century Kabardins populate plains of Alania


Alans, like Scythians and Sarmatians, are suggested to be re-classified as Ossetian/Iranian/Indoeuropean speakers, and are titled only “Iranian-speaking Alanians”