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Goddess Išhara/Tanrýça Išhara

Leyla Murat*

Abstract

The Hittite cuneiform texts and the archeological evidence point out clearly that the Hittites had a polytheist belief in their religious life. One of the most important gods which take place in this religious system is Goddess Išhara. This goddess has an important role in Hittite Pantheon including one thousand Hittite sacred gods. Goddess Išhara, who has a Mesopotamian origin, and who is transported to the Anatolia by Hurrians, is also the most important goddess of the Kizzuwatna region. Išhara is both illness- and cure-bestowed goddess; it also seemsthat a number of attributes such as underground, plant, mountain, river, spring, queen of oath, sexuality / propagation, cursing, sin, blood, dirtiness and making purification from the harmful things are given to this goddess.

Öz

Hitit çivi yazýlý belgeler ve arkeolojik kalýntýlar, Hititlerde çok tanrýlý bir din inancýnýn hâkim oldugunu bize açýkça göstermektedir. Hititlerdeki bu inanç sisteminde yer alan tanrýlardan biri de Tanrýça Išhara’dýr. Bu tanrýça Hititlerin kutsal tanrýlarýndan olusan bin tanrýlý Hitit Panteonu’nda çok önemli bir konuma sahiptir. Mezopotamya kökenli olan ve Hurriler aracýlýgý ile Anadolu’ya giren Tanrýça Išhara, Kizzuwatna bölgesinin en önemli tanrýçasýdýr. Bu tanrýça hem hastalýk veren hem de sifa veren, ayrýca yer altý, bitki, dag, ýrmak, su kaynagý, yeminin kraliçesi, cinsellik/üreme, lanetleme, günah, kan, cinayet, kirlilik ve kötülüklerden arýndýrýcý tanrýça gibi pek çok özelligi bünyesinde tasýyan bir tanrýçadýr.

In the beginning of the second millennium BC, the Hittites laid the foundations of a huge and important civilization in a region, called as Halys bend, in the Central Anatolia, and they achieved to keep alive this mighty kingdom until the end of 8th century BC. The Hittite cuneiform texts and the archeological evidence point out clearly that the Hittites had a polytheistic belief in their religious life.

It seems that especially from the Hittite Great Kingdom period, they achieved to carry this polytheist religious system to the farthermost points of the imperial territory. It is also interesting that Hittites, who gained strength in the both military and political areas, enlarged “Hittite Pantheon” including sacred gods with the gods of other kingdoms and towns which came under the Hittite sovereignty. In the treaties, among the oath gods, there were a number of gods and goddess which includes the Hittite Pantheon including “One thousand gods”, but originated in Hatti, Hurri, Luwi, Syria and Mesopotamia.

Among the gods and goddesses of The Hittite Pantheon including “one thousand gods”, Goddess Išhara1 also took place and had an important position in Hittite Pantheon.

Išhara appears as a goddess whose cult was extensively worshiped in both Semitic and non-Semitic Pantheon2.

It is supposed that the cult of goddess Išhara at first appeared in the Northern Syria and Kizzuwatna (the Southern Anatolia). In the 3rd Millennium BC, Ishara was dealt among the important gods of the Ebla Pantheon, and used as an onomastic element in Mesopotamia from the Akkadian Period. In the Akkadian Period, this form also was used as a teophoric element in the personal names. Išhara also relates with Ašhara who appears among the oath gods in a treaty from Elam. It also seems that Ishara appears in the Upper khabur region in the Late Sumerian period. In this period, the cult of goddess Išhara was established in some towns of Mesopotamian region, such as Nippur, Sippar, Kiš, Harbitum, Larsa, Urum and Tell el-Rimah.3

From the Old Babylonian Period, it seems that the cult of Goddess Išhara also passed through the other sites of Asia Minor. The texts from the Old Assyrian Colony Period point out that there were temples which were regularly offered sacrifice to the goddess in question. Dating from the middle of 2nd millennium BC, Išhara, near Sun god and Storm God, took place among the highest ranking gods of Alalakh Pantheon.4

The Hittite texts point out that Išhara is the most important goddess of the Kizzuwatna region.

Kizzuwatna laying in the south and south-east of Anatolia appears as a region under the Luwian and Hurrian influences in 1400 BC.5 Most of the Hittite ritual texts have a Kizzuwatnian origin which reflects the Luwian and Hurrian cultures6. For instance, in a ritual text7, KBo V 2, Ammihatna, the performer of this cultic ceremony, mentioned that he was the priest of Goddess Išhara and that he came form Kizzuwatna;

KBo V 2 Vs.I

1 UM-MA m Am-mi-ha-at-na LÚ SANGA ŠA DIš-ha-a-ra

2 LÚURUKi-iz-zu-wa-at-na

1-2 The Kizzuwatnian man, the priest of Goddess Išhara, Ammihatna (said) as follows:

According to the text8 about the organization of the cult of Goddess Išhara under the reign of Šuppiluliuma I, it appears that Išhara was the highest ranking goddess in local Kizzuwatna Pantheon. In this text, it is mentioned that some towns in the Kizzuwatna region, such as Neriša, Tarša etc achieved to preserve the cult of Goddess Išhara under a regime connected with temple economy. 9 In this text, it is also referred that a temple for

Goddess Išhara was built on the Išhara Mount near Neriša and Tarša towns, and that there was a spring which belonged to this goddess in Neriša;

KUB XL 2 (Bo 4889) Vs.

12 ma-ah-ha-an-ma-wa mTal-zu-ú-uš [ ]

13 ti-it-ta-nu-ut nu-wa-kán ŠŔ H[UR.SAGIš-ha-ra ]

14 I-NA HUR.SAGIš-ha-ra-pát še-ir [ ]

15 ú-e-te-it 3 NA4hu-u-wa-ši i[š-ga-ra-a-it DMu-wa-nu]

16 DMu-wa-at-ta-al-li Ů DGI[BIL ]

17 É.ŠŔ-ni IT-TI DIš-ha-ra UR[U Ne-e-ri-ša ]

18 dam-bu-bi-iš Ú-UL ku-iš-ki pa-iz-z[i ]

19 ŠA DINGIRMEŠ-ia-wa ALAMHI.A-ŠU-NU i-ia-at [ ]

20 ALAM KŮ.BABBAR GUŠKIN i-ia-at ŠA DUMU.MU[NUS ]

21 an-da ap-pa-an-da-aš 2 TA-PAL TÚG_B.LÁ [ ]

22 2? TÚGku-uk-ku-ul-la-a-im-mi-iš li-in-ki-i[a ]

23 hi-e-ia an-da-ma-kán MUŠEN ZABAR GU4 ZABAR[ ZABAR]

24 UR.ZÍR ZABAR DÍLIM.GAL ZABAR ŠA 1 ŠA-A-TI [ ]

25 URU.DIDLIHI.A-ŠU-NU ka-ru-ú-i-li-uš-pát ki-i [e-še-ir URU ]

26 IŠ-TU A.ŠŔ A.GŔR KISLAH GIŠKIRI6 URU I-pí-a-ra [ IŠ-TU A.ŠŔ

A.GŔR KISLAH GIŠKIRI6 URU ]

27 IŠ-TU A.ŠŔ A.GŔR KISLAH GIŠKIRI6 URUI-iz-zi-x[ IŠ-TU A.ŠŔ

A.GŔR KISLAH GIŠKIRI6 HUR.SAG-i]

28 URUMar-ga-a-na ŠA LÚNU.GIŠKIRI6 URUÚ-bar-ba-aš[-ša IŠ-TU A.ŠŔ

A.GŔR KISLAH GIŠMÚ.ŠAR]

29 GIŠKIRI6 GEŠTIN HUR.SAG-i URUKu-un-ni-ia-ra ŠA LÚNU.GIŠKIRI6

URU ]

30 URUHu-u-la-aš-ša URUTar-ša ma-a-ni-in-ku-wa-an URU[ IŠ-TU

A.ŠŔ A.GŔR]

31 KISLAH GIŠKIRI6 GEŠTIN URULu-ú-pu-ru-na URULa-ak-ki-iš-[ URU

]

32 IŠ-TU A.ŠŔ A.GŔR KISLAH GIŠKIRI6 I-NA URUAl-za-ra-ma A.[ ŠŔ

ZAG-ŠU?]

33 pí-ra-an-ma-aš-ši TÚL ŠA DIš-ha-ra URUNe-e-ri-ša Z[AG-aš EGIR?-anma-

aš-ši ]

34 ŠA DGIBIL ki-i URU.DIDLIHI.A ŠA É mÚ-ut-ti nu ki-e-da-aš

[DINGIRMEŠ-aš pí-ia-an]

—————————————————————————

………

Rs.

19 ar-kam-ma-aš-ma ki-i ŠA DINGIRLIM I-NA MU.3K[AM ]

20 2 TA-PAL TÚGGUZ.ZA 3 TÚGwa-at-tar-wi-za [ ]

21 1 DUG ZABAR 1 URUDUPIŠAN 1 ŠU.TÚG.LÁ ZAB[AR ]

22 10 GAL ZABAR 1 MA.NA KŮ.BABBAR a-ku-wa-an-na[-aš ]

23 1 PA1/2 PA Ě.GIŠ 3 BAR Ě.DUG.GA.IA ki-i pa-r[a-a ]

24 3 TÚG SIGMEŠ GIŠNÁ na-at-hi-i-ša A-NA DIš[-ha-ra ]

_______________________________________________________

25 ki-i-ma A-NA MUNUSEN-TI I-NA MU.3KAM pa-[ ]

26 1 DUG ZABAR 1 URUDUPIŠAN 10 GAL ZABAR 1NU-TU

27 GAL KŮ.BABBAR a-ku-wa-an-na-aš IŠ-TU É.GALLIM [ ]

28 GIŠNÁ GIŠTÚG GIŠha-aš-ši-ia-al-li GIŠx[ ]

Goddess _hšara 163

29 a-ia-at-ni-ia-aš an-da ap-pa-an-da Ú-NU-U[T ]

30 kap-pí-ia KŮ.BABBAR an-da ap-pa-an-da [

——————————————————————————

Vs.

12 When Talzuš [became the king] [ ]

13 he established in the midst of [Išhara] m[ount] [ ]

14 up in the very mountain Išhara [ ]

15 he erected. Three stone pillar he erect[ed for Muwanuš?]

16 Muwattalliš and the F[ire god ]

17 into the cella Išhara of [Neriša] [ ]

18 No one with any deficiency will enter [ ]

19 He also made the images of the gods. [ ]

20 He made an image gold (and) silver. He also made an image of a gi[r]l [ ]

21 completely outfitted; 2 pairs of _B.LÁ garments [ ]

22 2 kukullaimmi garments are bou[nd (?) ]

23 ……………, into…. A bronze bird, a bronze ox, [a bronze ]

24 a bronze dog (and) 1 sutu of a bronze bowl [ ]

25 Their previous villages were [as] follows: [village ]

26 Together with its cultivated (and) uncultivated territory, the threshingfloor (and) the garden land; Ipiara village [ together with its cultivated (and) uncultivated territory (and) the garden land; x village]

27 Together with its cultivated (and) uncultivated territory, the threshingfloor (and) the garden land; Izzi village [together with its cultivated (and) uncultivated territory, the threshing-floor (and) the garden land — in the mountains.

28 Margana village belongs to the gardener —; Ubarbaš[ša] village,Together with the cultivated and uncultivated territory, the threshing-floor and the vegetable gardens

29 (and) vinyards. — Kunniyara village in the mountains belongs to [the garderner— ; ….. the village]

30 Hulašša Village near Tarša and [ ] the village [together with the cultivated and uncultivated territory]

31 the threshing-floor (and) the vinyards; Lupuruna, Lakkiš (and) [ ] villages [ ]

32 together with the cultivated (and) uncultivated territory, the threshingfloor (and) the garden land (and also) the ter[ritory] of Alzara village [go with it.]

33 in the front of the spring of Išhara of Nerišša is its bou[ndary, in the rear the ]

34 Of the fire god. These villages are included to the territory of Wuzzi and (they) [give to] these [gods they are given]

———————————————————————————

Rs.

19 The following is due to the god as a tribute every third years: [ ]

20 2 pairs of GUZ.ZA garments, 3 wattarwiza garments, [ ]

21 1 bronze vessel, 1 copper vessel, 1 bronze ….. [ ]

22 10 bronze cups (1 mina of silver) for drinking [ ]

23 1 ˝ PA of olive oil, 3 BAR of fine oil. This [ ]

24 3 fine garments (and) a bed …….. to [hara] [ ]

———————————————————————————

25 The following they give to the entu every third years: [ ]

26 1 bronze pot, 1 copper vessel, 10 bronze cups, 1 pair [ ]

27 The silver cup for drinking; from the palace [ ]

28 a bed of box-wood, a ……… [ ]

29 …………… completely outfitted, tools [ ]

30 and silver kappi vessel completely outfitted [ ]

———————————————————————————

For Išhara who was the highest ranking goddess of the local Pantheon of Kizzuwatna, it was performed special rituals in Harvest and Spring festivals10;

Duplicate : KBO XXI 42 VI

1 DUB.I.KAM ŠA DIš-ha[-ra EZENHI.A-aš?]

2 zé-e-na-an-ta-aš[

3 ha-me-eš-ha-an-da-aš-ša QA-TI

4 ŠU mHa-pa-ti-UG

5 DUMU mTu-ua-at-ta-LÚ LÚA.ZU SAG

6 PA-NI mŠi-pa-LÚ IŠ-TUR

In this ritual, it is referred about the sacrificial and cultic ceremonies which were devoted to Goddess Išhara, and the local cult of this goddess; it was also performed a number of sacrificial ceremony for Beltu, Moon and Sun god, Halma, Moon god, Šangara/Šaggar and Tuhhiura in this context;

KBO XXIX 213 Vs. (Completion: Dupl. KBo XXI 42 )

1 [(ma-a-an A-NA DIš-ha-ra EZEN zé-na-an-ta-aš DU-a)]n-zi nu ki-iš-šaan

DÚ-an-zi

2 [(LÚHAL II GIŠ BANŠUR AD.KID da-a-i še-er-ma-kán II NINDA.

ERÍNMEŠ)] da-a-i DINGIRLUM sá-ra-a da-a-i

3 [(nu IZI ke-e-ez ke-e-ez-zi-ia da-a-i nu-kán ZÍD.D)] A A-NA IZI ke-e-ez

ke-e-ez-zi-ia

4 [(iš-hu-u-ua-i nu-kán DINGIRLUM is-tar-na ar-ha pé-e-d)] a-i na-an ar-raan-

zi iš-ki-ia-an-zi

5 [(na-an-kán A-NA GISBANŠUR EG_R-pa da-a-i nu-kán II

NINDA.KUR4.R)]A GA.KIN.AG NINDA.Í.É.DE.A me-ma-al III

NINDA.KUR4.RA

6 [( ha-ui-ia-aš-ši X NINDA.KU7 tar-na-aš ŠŔ.BÁ IEN NINDA.KUR4.RA)]

ŠA UP-NI ÍS-TU GA.KIN.AG ti-ia-an-za

7 [(X NINDA zi-mu-hi-ta-aš-ša IGIŠ tu-um-pa-an-ni Ě.DŮG.GA nu-)] [ ]-

kán ki-i hu-u-ma-an A-NA DINGIRLIM EGIR-pa

8 [(ti-an-zi TU7GÚ.GAL.GAL TU7 BA.BA.ZA I NINDA.KU7 ŠA1/2)] UPNI

I NINDA LA-AB-KU ŠA BA.BA.ZA

9 [(A-NA DINGIRLIM EGIR-pa ti-an-zi)]

_____________________________________________________________

10 [(nu EN SISKUR pa-iz-zi nu-uš-ši ŠUHI.Aaš ua-tar pí-an-zi)] nu EN

SISKUR A-NA DINGIRLIM UŠ-KI-EN nu-kán x-an ki-i A-NA

DINGIRLIM (?)

11 [(ti-an-zi III UDUHI.A ŠÁ.BA IEN UDU ŠA IGI.DU8.A-n)]a-an-kán A-NA

DIš-ha-ra Dpí-u-du-ma DINGIRMEŠ

12 [(DUTU-aš DHal-ma DŠa-an-ga-ra DTu-uh-hi-u-ra... ? DŠa- )] šu-up-pa-ia

nu-kán UDUHI.A A-NA PA-NI DINGIRLIM

13 [(ku-na-an-zi nu ZID.DA iš-hu-u-ua-i nu-kán iš-h)]ar A-NA ku-it še-er

tar-na-i nu an-da ua-ar-pa-an-zi

14 [(nu-kán LÚMUHALDIM LÚNINDA.DŮ.DŮ-ia pa-ra-a pé-e-da-an-)] zi

nu-kán pa-ra-a pé-e-da-an-zi

15 [(na-at-kán ha-aš-ši-i iš-hu-u-ua-an-zi UDUHI.A-m)]a I-NA pé-e-da-an-zi

nu UZUNÍG.GIG

16 [(GÍRMEŠ SAG.DUMEŠ hu-u-ma-an za-nu-ua-a)]n-zi nu A-NA DINGIRLIM

EGIR-pa ti-an-zi

17 [(NINDA.KUR4.RAHI.A ku-i-e-eš A-NA DINGIRLIM EGIR)]-pa ki-i-iaan-

da-ri na-aš ar-ha pár-ši-ia-an-zi

18 [ (x-ia ŠA GA.KIN.AG ar-ha pá)]r?-ši-i-ia

19 [ (iš-hu-ua-i TU7 GÚ.GAL.GAL TU7 BA.BA.)]ZA-ia A-NA

DINGIRLIM EGIR-pa ti-an-zi nu I NINDA LA-AB-KU?

20 [ (TU7 GÚ.GAL.GAL še-er da-a-i )] I NINDA LA-AB-KU- ia pár-ši-ia

na-an-kán A-NA TU7 x

21 [ (x-ta te-pu pí-ra-an)] ar-ha da-aš-ki-iz-zi na-at-kán šu-up-pí

22 [ (da-a-i nu I(?) )] x hu-u-ua-i u-tu-u-ua-aš-ša-ia iš-hu-u-ua-i

23 [ U]P-NI A-NA PA-NI DINGIRLIM ši-pa-an-ti

1 [(When they celebrate the Autumn festival for Goddess Išhara)], they

proceed like this:

2 [(The incantation priest sets up 2 sacrifice tables and he puts 2 soldier loaves on it.)] Then he lifts the statue of the goddess up.

3-4 [(With him/her)], and he puts [(fire on either side and sprinkles flour on the fire on either side and carries the goddess through between the two fires.)] He washes and anoints her (the image).

5 [(And he puts it on the sacrifice table again. 2 thick loaves)], cheese, cake, groats, 3 thick loaves,

6 [(in the shape of ) sheep, 10 sweet loaves (in the measure of) tarnaš, among them)] one [(thick loaf of)] a handful (size) covered with cheese,

7 [(10 zimuhitašša loaves, a tumpanni (vessel) of sweet (-smelling) oil)] All of these for the goddess they

8 [(puts. 1 dish of peas meal, 1 dish of mash, half handful (of) sweet loaf,)] 1moist?/soft bread, mash they

9 [(they put back for the goddess.)]

——————————————————————————

10 [( Then the person for whom the offerings are made goes; they give to him the water (to wash) his hand]). He bows to the goddess. For the goddess, these they

11 [(put; they bring 3 sheep; among them 1 sheep which is suitable to be used as a present (of high quality)]; Goddess Išhara, piuduma and gods,

12 [Sun Goddess, Halma, Šangara, Tuhhiura, Ša…., …)] pure. And in front of the goddess sheeps

13 [(they kill. And he fills heaping flour and the b)]lood that he puts on it for him and they wash into.

14 [the cook and the baker bri)]ng [(it)] and they get it.

15 [(And they fill it to the fire/fireplace)]. But they bring [(the sheep)], and the liver

16 [(the feet, the heads and all of them they coo)]k.

17 [(They)] break [(the loaves, which it is put for the goddess, into peaces)].

18 [( x is brea)]ked [(into the milk)]

19 [ (1 plate of peas meal, 1 plate of mash)] they put for the goddess again. Moist?/soft bread

20 [ (they put on 1 plate of peas meal.)] And he breaks 1 moist?/soft bread into pieces and it to the x meal

21 [ (x)] takes away [(shortly before)]. Pure

22 [ (he puts. And …… x)] he fills; he fills utuwašša.

23 [ hand]ful, before the goddess he offers. ……… Goddess _hšara 167

In the cuneiform texts, it seems that there are a number of attributes given to Goddess Išhara. In the prelude11 of Kumarbi Mythos and a ritual of MUNUSŠU.GI (ChS I /5 No. 77 KBo XVII 94 Rs. III 26 vd.) 12, it is mentioned that God Enlil and Goddess Abandu was the parent of Goddess Išhara. It is generally agreed that the parent of Išhara was “the mighty and immortal gods” or the gods belonged to the “Ancient Gods” generation. In a number

of texts, it is also pointed out that God Enlil and Goddess Apa(a)ndu originated in Mesopotamia13. The Mesopotamian pair was transferred to the Hittite religious sphere by Hurrians. A Hurrian passage in a ritual, which Išhara appears near her parent, gives evidence about this matter. However, in this ritual, it also seems that Išhara related with the “Ancient Gods” and the “Underground gods”;

KBo XVII 94 (ChS I/5 Nr. 77) Rs.III14

26 [ ] A-NA a-a-pí kat-ta-an-ta da-a-i nu-kán DIš-ha-ra-an

27 [ŠA D_š-h]a-ra-ia A-BU-ŠU AMA-ŠÚ-ia ka-ru-ú-i-li-ia-aš-ša

DINGIRMEŠ

28 [tak-n]a-za ša-ra-a hu-it-ti-ia-mi nu hur-li-li ki-iš-ša-an

29 [me-ma-i a-n]u-ša-ra DINGIRMEŠ-na du-ú-re-e-na DEN.LÍL-aš

30 Ů DA]-ba-du-uš ŠA DIš-ha-ra A-BU-ŠU AMA-ŠÚ-ia DNa-a-ra

31 [DNa]m-ša-ra DMi-in-ki DA-mu-un-ki DA-mi-za-du-un DA-la-lu-[un]

32 [DA-ú]-un-na-mu-un DI-ia-an-du-un a-ku-ša-al ti-ma-ar-re-[e]?

33 [e-še-n]i-in du-ú-ri-in ma-ah-ha-an ki-i ud-da-a-ar me-mi-ia-u[-wa-anzi]

In an invoking the Underground gods ritual15, it is pointed out that Goddess Išhara closely related with DEN.ZU “Moon god”, the Underground gods and the Ancient gods. In this context, it was invoked Ancient Gods and Underground ones banished to the Underground by the Storm god and also Ishara and DEN.ZU “Moon god”, in order to purify the house and the town from the all evil things16;

Invoking the Gods ritual

Rs.IV

9 nu te-iz-zi DMe-ma-šar-ti-iš AN-aš ták-na-aš-ša DEN.ZU[-aš]

10 DIš-ha-ra-aš NI-EŠ DINGIRLIM hur-ti-ia-aš UG6-aš DINGIRMEŠ

11 ku-iš kiš-du-an-za ku-iš ka-ni-ru-wa-an-za DINGIRLIM-iš

12 nu-za u-wa-at-ten iz-za-at-ten e-ku-ut-ten nu-mu-kán ha[r-pí-]ia-at-ten

13 na-aš-ta É-ir-za URU-az HUL-lu p[(a-ap-)]ra-tar e-eš-har

14 NI-EŠ DINGIRLIM wa-aš-túl hur-da-a-in ar-ha p(ar-ku-nu-)]ut-ten na-at

GĚRMEŠŠÚ

15 ŠU-ŠÚ iš-hi-ia-at na-at GE6-aš KI-aš an-da e-ep-du

……….

50 DINGIRMEŠ DA.NUN.NA.GE6 ka-a-ša š[u-um-m]a-aš ar-kam-ma-an

51 ša-ra-a ti-it-ta-nu-w[a(-an-za ki-i-ma-aš-ma-aš SÍSK)]UR <da->at-ten

52 nu-za par-na-aš e-eš-har pa-a[(p-ra-tar wa-aš-túl NI-IŠ DINGIRLIM )]

53 kur-ku-ra-in pi-ra-an hu-i-nu-ut-ten na-aš-kán kat-t[a(-an) ]

54 pí-e-da-ten

_______________________________________________________

55 šu-me-ša-kán ka-ru-ú-i-li-eš DINGIRMEŠ ku-e-e[z

56 ú-wa-ten na-aš-ta kat-ta-an a-pí-e-ez [

________________________________________________________

57 DUB.IKAM QA-TI e-eš-ha[

Rs IV

9 And he said: the Memeršarti of Sky and Earth! Moon God,

10 Išhara, the gods of divine oath, malediction and death!

11 Every god is hungry and thirsty.

12 Come here, eat and drink! And accompany me!

13 The (entire) badness, be purified from the house (and) the town; dirtiness, murder,

14 perjury, sin, malediction.

15 be tied to the hands and feet, and be pulled to the underground!”

………….

50 You, the Underground gods! Look, (your) tribute

51 is given. Now receive this sacrifice!

52 The murder of this house, its dirtiness, its sin, its perjury,

53 “cutting off and destroying the life” go in front of you and

54 be taken to the down (with you)!

—————————————————————————————

55 And you, Ancient gods, [ …… ] from the place where

56 you are coming, [turn] back to there!”

—————————————————————————————

57 The first tablet, is finished; above the blood […….. The goddess in question appears near taknaš DUTU-an / Allani “the Sun goddess of Underground” in other rituals of MUNUSŠU.GI (ChS I/5 Nr.7 Rs. IV 14, (the duplicate of Nr.7) Nr. 8 Rs.IV 30, Nr. 31 Vs.? 12) 17. It is

generally supposed that Allani firstly appeared in Mesopotamia in the Late Sumerian Period, and is of a Hurrian origin18. In another ritual (KBo V 2 Rs. III 7-10)19, performed by Ammihatna, the priest of Goddess Išhara, this goddess is concerned with Allani again. In a Hurrian literary text20, Išhara is mentioned near Allani once again; the goddess took a scene in Ebla in this context;

KBo 32 11 Vs.I

1 ši-ra-ti-li DIM-up URUKum-mi-ni-wii t[a-la-a-wuu-ši]

2 e-eb-ri ta-al-ma-aš-ti-i-li-ši-i[-tu-u-ri]

3 ni-ik-ri e-še-ne-e-bi DA-al-la-a[-ni]

—————————————————————

4 ma-an-zu-u-ra-a-ma ka-ti-il-li i-š[a-aš]

5 ši-tu-u-ri DIš-ha-ra ti-wi (Rasur) ta-a-an[-

6 ma-a-ti a-mu-tu-u-pa-ti e-ne [

——————————————————————

7 mPi-zi-kar-ra ka-ti-il-li URUE[-eb-la-

8 a-ki-tu-u-ri mPi-zi-kar-ra-aš pa-h[é-

9 URU Nu-u-ha-aš-še-ni URUE-eb-la-am [

——————————————————————

10 mPi-zi-kar-ra Ni-i-nu-pa-ap-hi a-x[

11 ka-lu-u-waa-ti hu-ú-ši-ia a-li-x[

12 šu-ú-ke-e-ma hu-ú-ši-ia ki-i[a?-

13 i-ši-i-ma e-en-na-a-aš-ta t[a

——————————————————————

Rs.IV

………

12 [DI]M-ub-waa-a te-wee-na DIš[-ha-ra]

13 [ka-]ti-ia ša-a-ri-ib ša-a-ri(-)u-u[m?-

14 [D]Iš-ha-a-ra ša-a-ri-ib ša-a-ri[(-)

15 [i-š]a-aš a-ri-li-ib-waa x?[

—————————————————————

16 [DI]š-ha-ra-a te-wee-na DIM-[ub ka-ti-ia]

17 [h]é-en6-na-a-am URUE-eb-la-an pa-a[-

18 e-nu-tu-u-bi-in DIš-ha-a-ra-an x[

19 pa-hé-e-ta a-bi-iš-ša-a e-nu-x[

20 DIš-ha-ra-an URUE-eb-la-a-al [

21 pa-a-hu-ú-ma u-um-mi-in-na pa-a-h[u?

—————————————————————

In the ritual of (H)išuwa festival21, it seems that Išhara paired with Allani, In this context, it is mentioned that the sacrificial and the cultic ceremonies for Išhara and Allani was performed in a special temple;

KUB 32 128 Vs. I

1 nu-kan ma-ah-ha-an hu-u-e-ša-wa-az MÁŠ.GAL

2 ši-pa-an-da-an-zi nu 5 NINDA.SIGMEŠ par-ši-[ia]

3 nu-uš-ša-an GIŠir-hu-u-i-ia-aš IN-BIH_.A

4 an-da im-mi-ia-an-da 1 UP-NU iš-hu-u-w[a-an-zi]

5 NINDA.LŔL-ia-aš-ša-an hu-u-ma-an-du-uš

6 ku-iš-ša pa-ra-a tar-na-aš ki-it-ta-ri

7 NINDAhar-šu-pa-ni-iš-ša-an BA.BA.ZA tar-na-aš

8 NINDAla-al-la-am-mu-ri-iš-ša BA.BA.ZA UP-NI

9 ki-it-ta-ri nu-uš-ša-an NINDA.SIGMEŠ par-ši-ia-an-da

10 a-wa-an kat-ta da-a-i na-aš PA-NI DIš-ha-ra

11 da-a-i nam-ma-aš-ši UD.KAM-aš NINDAka-ag-ga-ri-i-in

12 BA.BA.ZA ˝ UP-NI par-ši-ia na-an PA-NI DIš-ha-ra

13 da-a-i EGIR-ŠU-ma LUSANGA-ŠU IŠ-TU la-ha-an-ni KŮ.BABBAR

14 ši-pa-an-ti LUGAL-uš-ma IŠ-TU 2 la-ha-an-ni GUŠKIN

15 ši-pa-an-ti

—————————————————————————————

16 nam-ma 1 DUGha-ni-iš-ša-an GEŠTIN da-an-zi

17 nu 1 GAL GUŠKIN 2 GAL KŮ.BABBAR-ia A-NA DIš-ha-ra

18 1 GAL KŮ.BABBAR-ma A-NA DŠi-it-ta-du 1 GAL KŮ.BABBAR

19 A-NA DAl-la-zi-ia-ši 1 GAL KŮ.BABBAR

20 A-NA DHu-te-na DHu-te-el-lu-ur-ra

21 šu-un-na-an-zi nam-ma EGIR-an-da LÚSANGA-ŠU

22 IŠ-TU 1 la-ha-an-ni KŮ.BABBAR ši-pa-an-ti

23 LUGAL-uš-ša IŠ-TU 2 la-ha-an-ni GUŠKIN ši-pa-an-ti

—————————————————————————————

24 na-aš-ta LUGAL-uš IŠ-TU É DIš-ha-ra pa-ra-a

25 ú-iz-zi na-aš _-NA É DAl-la-a-ni pa-iz-zi

26 nu A-NA DIš-ha-ra ma-ah-ha-an MUŠEN am-ba-aš-ši

27 MÁŠ.GAL-ia ke-el-di-ia ši-pa-an-te-er

28 A-NA DAl-la-a-ni am-ba-aš-ši 1 MUŠEN 1 UDU-ia

29 ke-el-di-ia QA-TAM-MA ši-pa-an-da-an-zi

30 hu-u-ma-an-kán QA-TAM-MA ha-an-da-a-an wa-a-tar-ra

31 GIŠERIN-az DINGIRLIM-ni me-na-ah-ha-an-da MUNUStap-ri-ia-aš

32 [(l)a]a-hu-u-wa-i ma-a-an MUNUStap-ri-ia-aš-ma NU.GÁL

33 [(nu)] wa-a-tar GIŠERIN-ia DINGIRLIM-ni me-na-ah-ha-an-da

34 [(LÚSAN)]GA-š[u-pá)]t la-a-hu-u-wa-i[

________________________________________________________

1 After the fresh (blood) of billy goat they

2 offered, they breaks 5 thin breads.

3 Into the basket a handful of

4 assorted fruits they load.

5 All sweet breads

6 — each one is of tarna-measure — are put down.

7 A tarna-measure of mash (and) a haršupani-bread

8 and (with) a handful of mash, a lalammuri-bread

9 are put down. The disaggregated thin breads

10 put down and before Goddess Išhara

11-12 they are put down. However A handful of mash (and) gaggari-bread of the day are broken for her and it is put down before Goddess Išhara.

13 Then, her priest performs libation from a silver drinking cup for her.

14-15 But the king performs libation from two golden drinking cups.

—————————————————————————————

16 Then, they take a ladle of wine and

17 they fill two silver cups and a golden cup of Goddess Išhara.

18 The silver cup of God Šittadu,

19 the silver cup of God Allaziyaši,

20 the silver cup of God Hutena Hutellarura (they also filled).

21 Then, for him, her priest22

22 performs libation from the silver cup.

23 But the king performs libation from two golden cups.

___________________________________________________________

24 The king goes out from the Išhara-temple.

25 and he goes to the Allani-temple.

26 As they sacrifice a bird to Goddess Išhara for ambašši

27 and a billy goat for keldi,

28 they also sacrifice a bird and a sheep to Goddess Allani for ambašši

29 (and) the same for keldi.

30 In this manner everything was arranged. And Tapriya-woman

31 pours water by a cedar cup.

32 If any Tapriya-woman exists,

33-34 the priest pours the water in the cedar cup before the god.

_________________________________________________________

In a ritual about the kupti23 offering to gods and goddesses (KBo 4, 47 Rs. III 1-14), the goddesses are listed as Hepat, Allani, Išhara, Ningal24, I[štar] and Šuwala;

KBo XXIV 47

8 QA-TAM-MA GU[L-a]h-zi x[ ]x A-NA DHé-pa-at I ku-up-ti-in

__________________________________________________________

9 QA-TAM-MA GUL-ah-zi EGIR [ ] A-NA DAl-la-a-ni I ku-up-ti-[in

10 QA-TAM-MA GUL-ah-zi [E]GIR-šu-ma A-NA DIš-ha-ra I ku-up-ti-in

11 QA-TAM-MA GUL-ah-zi [E]GIR-šu-ma A-NA DNIN.GAL I ku-up-ti-in

QA-TAM[MA]

__________________________________________________________

12 [QA-T]AM-MA A-NA Dx[ ]x-x QA-TAM-MA GUL-ah-zi [E]GIR-šu-ma

A-NA DI[ŠTAR]

13 [ I ku-]up-ti QA-TAM-MA G[U]L-ah-zi EGIR-šu-ma A-NA DŠu-ua-la

DINGIRMEŠ

MUNUS MEŠ

14 I ku-up-ti [Q]A-TAM-[M]A GUL-ah-zi …….

The same list as mentioned above, like Išhara, Allani, two Moon gods, named Umbu and Ningal, Ištar, Ninatta and Kulitta, also appears in other cuneiform texts25. However, in KBo XXIII 19, KBo XXII 105 and 800/z Išhara is mentioned as a goddess related with the spirits of the departed. In a funerary ritual26 performed by the priestess of Goddess Išhara, it is clearly pointed out the relationship between Hamrišhara27 i.e. Išhara and the Underground world;

KUB XXX 28+ Vs.28

8 n]u-uš-ša-an 1 TÚG na-aš-ma 1 TÚGk[a-r]i-ul-li

9 ] GIŠNÁ A-NA ALAM ZAG-az ti-[an-du

10 [nu-u]š? ki-ik-kar-ši x[ ] ti-an-du še-ir-ma-aš-ša-an 1 NINDA

ERÍNMEŠ [

11 EG_R KÁ.GAL-ia 2 GIŠKAKHI.A x x x a[n-da wa-al-ah-ha-an-du še-irm[a-aš-ša-an]

12 [GI]Š? kar-kar-al-li ti-an-du na-a[t] A-NA DHa-am-ri-iš-ha-ra AN[

13 [GI]Š? kar-kar-al-li-ma-aš-ša-an iš-ha-r[a-a]l-li-iš da-a-i ma-a-an x[

14 [na-]at MUNUSKAB.ZU.ZU fši-lal-lu-hi-iš [da-a?-]i LÚpa-a-te-li-iš

15 [Ú-U]L pa-iz-zi nam-ma-aš-ša-an A-N[A ] x x [

____________________________________________________________

16 ] iš-ha-ra-al-li-iš na-aš-m[a

17 ]x-an du-wa-ar-ni-e-iz-zi [

18 ]x- ma-aš-ša-an LÚpa-a-ti-l[i

………

25 D]Ha-am-ri-iš-ha-ra a[-

26 ak-ká]n-ti ku-it a-da-an-n[a

27 ]x-zi nam-ma DHa-am-ri[-iš-ha-ra

28 pí-e-da-an-zi ma-a-am-ma-an-kán x[

29 ma-an-kán DHa-am-ri-iš-ha-ra-aš AN[

____________________________________________________________

8 ] subsequently a garment and a cloak

9 ] they put to the bed in the right-side of image,

10 [and t]hey put it to the feet x[ ]. But subsequently a soldier bread [

11 and they hammer two nails to the back of door, but subsequently

12 they put karkaralli and to the Hamrišhara [

13 But the Išhara- priest /priestess takes karkaralli; when [

14 Assistant Šilalluhi takes it. The Patili-priest [

15 doesn’t go away. Afterwards [

_____________________________________________________

16 an] Išhara-priest/priestess or [

17 ] is broken into pieces [

18 ] x the Patili-priest [

(The rest of the text is missing)

25 God] Hamrišhara [

26 to the dead to eat [

27 ] furthermore Hamri[šhara

28 they bring; when x[

29 Hamrišhara [

All evidence confirms that Išhara was a goddess belonged to the group of Underground gods. It seems that this goddess appears near Dagan, the crop/seed god, in Ebla Pantheon. Išhara is also connected with the agricultural activities in Ebla, and she is defined as “Lady of the sexuality /love” in there29. Goddess Išhara had an important role in Emar Pantheon. It stands out that a temple was dedicated to this goddess in Emar, and that the goddess was designated with some attributes such as gašan uruki “lady of the town”, ša lugal “(lady) of the king” and ša mimeš a-nab-bi-ia-ti “(lady) of the augurs”. There was also a ritual that was performed for Goddess Išhara and Ninurta, well- known as an agricultural god and main god of Emar.30 As it seems, Išhara was connected with the agricultural activities in Emar too. In the prayer of ritual of Autumn and Spring Ritual from Bogazköy, it was demanded from Išhara to help to secure the cattle in the pastures and to grow the crops, but not to walk off:

KBo XXIII 41

3 ] DIšhara ze-[

______________________________________________________

4 ] DIšhara EZEN [ ]x ki-[

5 ]x DINGIRLIM-kán ŠA SĚ[RRU ]-zi nu x-[

6 ] TU7 ga-an-ga-ti SAR x[ ]x kat-ta ti-a[n

7 ] da-an-zi na-an A-NA [ ]zi nu ki-iš-ša[-an

8 ]-pár-zi zi-ig-wa an-x[ ]x li-e pa-a-x[

9 ] ša-wa-at-ta EZEN x[ ] ma-a-an x-x DINGIRLIM

TUKU.TUKU-an-za

10 ]-ma-za u-na-ti-wa-li-x [ ma]a-an-ták-kán ZI-ni ku-it-ki i-da-a-lu

an-da [

11 ]x-ga-ti-ia-za kar-aš-du da-aš-šu-uš hal-ki-iš a-li u-wa-ni-ia-aš

LI-IM [

12 ]x A-NA DINGIRLIM TUKU.TUKU-at-ta-an du-ši-in a-pu-uš daan-

zi na-an a-l[i

13 ] pa-an-zi nu-u-ma-an-zi-ma I NINDA a-a-an I NINDA x-a I

NINDA.KU7

DUG hu-u-par[

14 ]x-ma EN SISKUR pa-iz-zi nu-kán DINGIRLIM kat-ta da-an-zi nu IZI

k[i

So, we conclude that Išhara was an herbal-god who was connected with the agricultural activities in the Hittite Age. It is also dealt with that characteristic of Išhara in a military-oath text as follows31:

KBoVI 34 Rs. III

11 …. na-an li-en-ki-aš

12 DINGIRMEŠ HUL-lu hur-ta-an-du

13 nu-uš-ši-iš-ša-an ú-e-el-lu-uš

14 ha-a-li-iš-ši a-ša-ú-ni-iš-ši

15 šu-up-li-eš-ši li-e lu-lu-wa-it-ta

16 IŠ-TU A.ŠŔ-ŠU –ma-aš-ši-kán ag-ga-li-it

17 ú-el-ku-wa-an li-e ú-iz-zi

11-12 ……. and the gods of oath (Goddess Išhara and the moon god32) should curse him /her dreadfully.

13-15 and for his/her horses and his/her sheep and cattle, no pasture should grow.

16 furthermore in places opened with a deeply passed plough in her field

17 no plant should grow!”

In a cuneiform text about incantation from Ebla, Goddess Išhara appears near Baliha, the river goddess. In another text from Ebla, it was dealt with the offering ceremonies for God Dagan, Išhara and Haburitum, goddess of the Khabur River33. As it is mentioned before, in a Bogazköy text34, it is referred that a mountain and a spring which belonged to Goddess Išhara are found in Neriša town into the Kizzuwatna territory;

KUB XL 2 (Bo 4889)

12 ma-ah-ha-an-ma-wa m Tal-zu-ú-uš [ ]

13 ti-it-ta-nu-ut nu-wa-kán ŠŔ H[UR.SAGIš-ha-ra ]

14 I-NA HUR.SAGIš-ha-ra-pát še-ir [ ]

12 When Talzuš [became the king] [ ]

13 he established in the midst of [Išhara] m[ount] [ ]

14 up in the very mountain Išhara [ ]

KUB XL 2 (Bo 4889)

33 pí-ra-an-ma-aš-ši TÚL ŠA DIš-ha-ra URUNe-e-ri-ša Z[AG-aš EGIR?-anma-aš-ši

33 in the front of the spring of Išhara of Nerišša is its bou[ndary, in the rear the………]

In the list of oath-gods in an Egyptian copy of the treaty between Ramses II and Hattušili III35, Goddess Ishara appears as “the lady of the mountains and rivers of Hatti Kingdom” among the highest ranking gods of Hatti Land in the hierarchy. The evidence points out that Išhara also has a characteristic as the goddess of mountain, river and spring, except other

attributes. Storm God appears near Išhara in a Hurrian text.36 In this text, it is agreed that it is dealt with Išhara, instead of Ištar/Šauška.37 It is also supposed that there some close similarities in characteristic between Išhara and Ištar. From the 3rd millennium BC, it seems that a number of texts about love- and sexuality spells concerning with Ištar and Išhara. For instance, in a Early Babylonian version of Atra(m)hasis myth, it is dealt with Goddess

Išhara as a “sexuality goddess”. In a letter from the Early Assyrian period, it is mentioned that two bull images were offered to both of these goddess. In a lexical text from the end of the 2nd millennium BC, it is interesting that “Star Išhara” was identified with “Ištar, lady of the lands”. In Akkadian magic texts about sexuality, Išhara was described as a Love god, near Naraya, Ištar and Gazbaya. After the first millennium BC, Išhara appeared as a warrior

god, a characteristic which is peculiar to Goddess Ištar.38

The lists of oath-gods in Hittite treaties also confirm that Goddess Išhara had a characteristic of “oath goddess”. Goddess Išhara firstly was mentioned as “the lady of the oath39” in a treaty40 between Kashkains and Arnuwanda I in the Middle Kingdom Period. In another treaty between Pillia, the king of Kizzuwatna and Idrimi, the king of Alalakh, it is clearly

defined that the party who will break this treaty is going to be destroyed by gods, especially Storm God (DIM), Sun Goddess (Šamaš) and Goddess From the Great Kingdom Period, the goddess in question is mentioned as “the queen of oath” and “the lady of oath”, and Kušuh, a Hurrian Moon god, as “the master of oath”.

DIšhara MUNUS.LUGAL NI-EŠ DINGIRLIM

Goddess Išhara, the queen of oath”

DSIN EN NI-EŠ DINGIRLIM

Moon God, the master of oath

In a treaty between Manapa-Datta and Muršili II42, DSIN and Išhara appear respectively as “the master of oath” and “the queen of oath”. There are also some treaties in which Moon God is characterized as “the master of oath”, and Išhara as “the queen of oath”, such as a treaty between Šuppiluliuma I and Mat/Kurtiwaza of Mitanni43; a treaty between Šuppiluliuma I and Tette of Nuhašše44; a treaty between Muršili II and Duppi-Tešup, the king of Amurru Land45; a treaty between Muršili II and Alakšanduš of Wiluša46.

In the treaty47 between Hattušili III and Ramses II, Išhara appear as “the lady of oath”.

In Hurro-Hittite LÚA.ZU ritual48, Goddess Išhara was characterized as “Išhara of the Oath ( Išhara=n elmi=ni=bi=ni)” However, in a military oath text, it appears that it was dealt with NI-EŠ DINGIRMEŠ, “the gods of oath” 49; these gods were Goddess Išhara and Moon god once again50. In this context, it is mentioned that Išhara and Moon god are responsible to punish the one who broke the oath. The content of the punishment which those gods directed to the one broke the oath, is described as follows:

KBo VI 34 Rs.III

2 nu-uš-ma-aš-kán MUN[(USLÚIGI.NU.GÁL LÚÚ.HÚB

3 pí-ra-an ar-ha [(pí-e)]hu-da-an-zi

4 nu-uš-ma-aš kiš-an [(te-ši)] ka-a-ša MUNUS LÚIGI.NU.GÁL

5 LÚÚ.HÚB nu-wa-kán [( k)]u-iš A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL

6 HUL-lu ták-ki-iš-z[i na]-an NI-IŠ DINGIRMEŠ ap-pa-an-du

7 na-an LÚ-an MU[NUS-an i-ia-a]n-du na-an LÚIGI.NU.GÁ[L-aš]

8 i-wa-ar da-[šu-wa-ah-ha-an-du! ŠA LÚÚ.HÚB-ma-an

9 i-wa-ar [du-ud-du-mi-i]a-an-du na-an-kán DUMU.LÚ.ULŮ.LU

10 QA-DU DAMMEŠ-ŠÚ DUMUMEŠ-ŠÚ pa-an-kur-ši-it

11 iš-tar-n[a ar-ha har-ni-]in-kán-du

____________________________________________________

12 n[u-uš-m]a-aš-kán AL[AM Š]Ŕ-ŠU ú-i-da-an-<da> šu-u

13 [I-NA Q]A-TI-ŠU-NU da-a-i nu kiš-an te-iz-zi

14 [ka]-a-aš-wa ku-iš Ú-[UL-wa] li-in-kiš-ki-it

15 [nu] DINGIRMEŠ-aš pí-ra-an [li-in-k]at-ta

16 nam-ma-kán NI-IŠ DINGIR[ LIM šar]-ra-ad-da na-an li-in-ki-an-te-eš

17 e-ip-pir na-aš-ša-an ŠŔ-ŠU šu-ut-ta-ti

18 nu-za šar-hu-wa-an-da-an QA-TI-ŠÚ pí-ra-an UGU-a

19 kar-pa-an har-zi na-aš-ta ku-iš ku-u-uš NI-IŠ DINGIRLIM

20 šar-ri-iz-zi na-an ki-e NI-IŠ DINGIRMEŠ

21 ap-pa-an-du na-aš-ša-an ŠŔ-ŠU šu-ut-ta-ru

22 an-dur-za-ma-[ ]-kán I-NA ŠŔ-ŠU DUMU DIš-ha-a-ra

23 [ DXXX? ap-pa-an-d]u?51 na-an ka-ri-pa-an-du

_____________________________________________________

Rs.IV

1 pa-iz-zi šu-ma-a-ša li-in-ki-ia-an-te-eš

2 an-da QA-TAM-MA ap-pa-an-du nu-uš-ma-ša-at-kán

3 ar-ha li-e pa-iz-zi

_____________________________________________________

4 nu-uš-ša-an pa-ah-hu-e-ni wa-a-tar pa-ap-par-aš-zi

5 nu-uš-ma-aš kiš-an te-iz-zi ki-i-ia-aš-ta

6 wa-ra-a-an pa-ah-hur GIM-an ki-iš-ta-ti

7 na-aš-ta ku-iš ku-u-uš NI-IŠ DINGIRMEŠ šar-ri-iz-zi

8 na-an ki-e NI-IŠ DINGIRMEŠ ap-pa-an-du

9 na-aš-ta a-pí-el-la TI-tar-še-it LÚGURUŠ-tar-še-it

10 lu-lu-uš-še-it I-NA EGIR UDMI QA-DU DAMMEŠ-ŠÚ

11 DUMUMEŠ-ŠÚ QA-TAM-MA ki-iš-ta-ru na-an li-en-ki-aš

12 DINGIRMEŠ HUL-lu hur-ta-an-du

13 nu-uš-ši-iš-ša-an ú-e-el-lu-uš

14 ha-a-li-iš-ši a-ša-ú-ni-iš-ši

15 šu-up-li-eš-ši li-e lu-lu-wa-it-ta

16 IŠ-TU A.SŔ-ŠU –ma-aš-ši-kán ag-ga-li-it

17 ú-el-ku-wa-an li-e ú-iz-zi

____________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

18 DUB.IIKAM ma-a-an ERÍNMEŠ-an li-en-ki-ia

19 pí-e-hu-da-an-zi

____________________________________________________

Rs. III

2 Now, a blind and deaf woman

3 is brought away near them and you

4 say them like that: “Look, (this woman) is blind and

5 deaf. To the King and Queen, whoever

6 does evil, the oaths should catch him

7 and turn him into a w[oma]n from a man.

8 they should make him blind as a blind-man and as a deaf-man

9 They should make him a deaf and him, these peoples,

10 with [their] w[ifes] and s[ons]

11 with their offrings, they should destroy.

__________________________________________________

12 [And] an image of man/woman filled with water to [the]ir hands, he

13 put and said like that:

14 “Who is this person? Did he take an oath?

15 He [took an oat]h before Gods and

16 then he [bro]ke his oath and oath gods

17 catched him, and he swelled out internally.

18 And he held up his hand to his (tumid) belly

19 Now whoever sweeps these oaths,

20 these oaths should catch him.

21 And they should swell up his interior.

22 But, the child/ offspring in his interior [him?] Išhara

23 [ and Moon God? should cat]ch (?) and they should eat him!”.

___________________________________________________

Rs. IV

1-2 The Oath Gods also should catch you like that, from your interior and it

3 isn’t going to leave you anymore.

____________________________________________________

4 Now he sprinkled water to the fire

5 And he said them like that: As this

6 burning fire is extinguished,

7 the persons who broke the oath also

8 these oaths should catch like that

9 and his life, his youthful energy,

10 his safety, totally

11 his woman and sons, they should eradicate and

12 the oath gods should curse him dreadfully

13-15 and for his horses, his sheep and cattle, no pastures should grow;

16 furthermore, in the places opened with a deeply passed plough in her field

17 no plant should grows!”.

__________________________________________________

18-19 The second Tablet: when the troops went to take oath

________________________________________________

In the treaty with Kashkaians (KBo 8 35 Vs. II 23-24) 52, it is mentioned that the oath gods are going to punish the one who broke the oath, as the military oath53. This punishment is described as follows:

KBo VIII. 35 Vs. II

22 nu-kán ma-a-an li-in-ga-[i- ] šar-ra-ad-du-ma nu-za GU4

HI.A-KU-NU

UDUHI.A- KUNU

23 an-du-uh-še-eš li-e ha-aš-[ša-an-z]i nu-uš-[m]a-aš-kán NI-EŠ

DINGIRMEŠ DUMUHI.A-KU-NU

24 an-da-an kar-di-iš-mi-aš [ a]z-zi-ik-kán-du

22 If you break the oath, your cattle, your sheep (and)

23-24 your people shouldn’t give a birth. And the oath-gods should eat you, your children [ ] inside your body/belly. Both of these texts give evidence that there was an ancient blief which Moon God and Išhara catched the ones who broke the oath, inserted their interiors, caused an illness as swelling in their bellies, and that they ate those person and their offsprings from their interiors. In the cuneiform texts, a number of passages such as “Cattle, sheep and people should not give birth”, “they should eat your child/children in the belly” and “they sould eradicate his life, his youthful energy, his safety, totally [ ] his woman and sons.” point out that Išhara had a characteristic of sexuality/propagation in Hittite Age.

In KUB XXX 26 I concerned with Zelliya Ritual54, the illness (the swelling in the belly), which is given by Goddess Išhara, was called as “Išhara-illness”, and “To fall the Išhara-illness” was expressed by a Hitt. verb. išharišh-55. Furthermore, it is also stressed that the man who is sickened by Išhara couldn’t be freed from this illness, and that he would die. In this ritual, it is expressed that Išhara is goddess who causes an illness which could result in death, as follows;

KUB 30 26 Vs.I

1 UM-MA mZi-el-li-ia LÚ URUKu-úr-kán-za ma-a-an UKU-an

2 DIš-ha-ra-az GIG-zi na-aš iš-ha-ri- iš-ha-ri nam-ma-aš a-ki

1 Zelliya of Kurkanza said like that: “If the people

2 is sickened by Goddess Išhara, he falls the Išhara-illness, but he dies. In a ritual text, KUB XIV 4 (IV 22-23) 56, which was written under the reign of Muršili II, it is pointed out the malediction characteristic of Goddess Išhara and that the malediction which is derived from the goddess Išhara (perhaps because of the illness that comes out due to goddess) concluded with the death. In the text, it is dealt with the meladiction that concluded with death as follow;

KUB XIV 4 Rs. IV57

22 ...... nu MUNUS.LUGAL am-mu-uk DAM-IA DUMU-IA A-NA DIšha-ra

23 hur-z]a-ki-it nu-un-na-aš-kán an-da ši-pa-an-za-ki-it nu-kán DAM-IA a-pé-el-la-az BA.UG6

22-23 The queen [curs]ed me, my wife and my son to Išhara and give us as sacrifice. And therefore my wife died.

In a ritual58 in which the Underground gods are invoked, Išhara appears near Moon god, DEN.ZU, and God Memešarti of Sky and Earth. The terms as “the gods of divine oath, malediction, sin, blood/murder and death” might be used for Moon God, God Memešarti and Išhara in this context. Because, as if the charactersitcs of Goddess Išhara, which we try to describe by the aid of various texts so far, was summarized in general there. The concerned lines are as follows59;

The invoking ritual

Rs.III

54 [DMe-ma-šar-ti-iš AN-aš ták-na-aš-š]a DEN.ZU-aš DIš-ha-ra-aš

55 [ NI-EŠ DINGIRLIM hur-ti-ia-aš wa-aš-tu-la-aš e-eš-ha-na-aš

DINGIRMEŠ

……(kýrýk)

Rs.IV

9 nu te-iz-zi DMe-ma-šar-ti-iš AN-aš ták-na-aš-ša DEN.ZU[-aš]

10 DIš-ha-ra-aš NI-EŠ DINGIRLIM hur-ti-ia-aš UG6-aš DINGIRMEŠ

11 ku-iš kiš-du-an-za ku-iš ka-ni-ru-wa-an-za DINGIRLIM-iš

12 nu-za u-wa-at-ten iz-za-at-ten e-ku-ut-ten nu-mu-kán ha[r-pí-]ia-at-ten

13 na-aš-ta É-ir-za URU-az HUL-lu p[(a-ap-)]ra-tar e-eš-har

14 NI-EŠ DINGIRLIM wa-aš-túl hur-da-a-in ar-ha p(ar-ku-nu-)]ut-ten na-at GĚRMEŠŠÚ

15 ŠU-ŠÚ iš-hi-ia-at na-at GE6-aš KI-aš an-da e-ep-du

Rs. III

54 [Memešarti of Sky and Earth!] Moon God, Išhara,

55 the gods of [divine oath, meladiction, si]n and blood!

Rs IV

9 And he said: “Memešarti of Sky and Earth! Moon god,

10 Išhara, the gods of divine oath, meladiction and death!

11 Each god is hungry (or) thirsty.

12 Come here, eat (and) drink. And accompany me!

13 (All) badness shall purify from house and town; impurity, murder,

14 oath (perjury), sin, meladiction —

15 they shall be tied to the hand and feet, and shall be pulled down to the

Underground world. However, in these lines, in order to be purified a house and a town from all badness such as impurity, murder, oath (perjury), sin and meladicition, Goddess Išhara, “Moon God” (DEN.ZU) and Memešarti are invoked from the Underground by beautiful words and offerings. The evidence in question attests that goddess Išhara (with other gods) is of a purificative character against the impurty and badnesses.

If any illness was obtained, it was appealed to the goddess Išhara and was desired from her to help in finding the cure. In an offering text, KUB XV 11 III 6 ff., Queen Puduhepa who designated herself as “the girl of Kizzuwatna Land” appeals to Išhara in order to cure the illness of her husband, Hattušili III, owing to her belief — she believed that the illness was a punishment which was derived from gods, and that Ishara may be responsible for this case. Furthermore, it seems that Queen Puduhepa also had a special cult chamber made ready for Išhara in the sanctuaries during the great cultic ceremonies (KBo XX 114 V 2; KUB XXXII 99 V 9 ff) 60.

According to the text, KUB XII 2461, it seems that if Išhara, who is appeared as the origin of illness, is pleased, she turns to a cure-bestowed goddess. In this context, in order to cure the person who became ill owing to the anger of Išhara, her anger is calmed and she is pleased62. To please the Goddes Išhara, it was offered some materials such as silver, iron, tin, copper, lapizlazuli, lead, various wools, beer, wine, cheese and walhi;

KUB XII 24 (Bo 2371)

Vs.I

2 nam-ma A-NA DINGIRLIM pí-ra-an ki-iš-š [a-an

3 nu an-tu-uh-ša-an ku-in iš-tar-[ak-zi

4 hal-za-a-i nu ki-iš-ša-an me-ma-i ka-a-aš [

5 ku-in DINGIRLIM kar-tim-mi-ia me-ma-i ka-a-aš [

6 ma-a-an ú-e-ku-ua-ar-ra-az ku-e-iz-qa k[i

7 A-NA DINGIRLIM SÍSKUR ú-da-ah-hu-un ma-a-an [

8 ma-a-an KÚ.BABBAR ka-a-ša-at ma-a-an AN.BAR GE6 [

9 ma-a-an NAGGA ka-a-ša-at ma-a-an AN.BAR ka-[a-ša-at

10 ma-a-an URUDU ka-a-ša-aš ma-a-an NA4ZA.GIN ka-a [-ša-aš

11 ma-a-an TI-an-za NA4-aš ka-a-ša-aš ma-a-an ša-mu [

12 ma-a-an A.BÁR ka-a-ša-[aš

____________________________________________________

13 [ma-a-an] SÍG ZA.GĚN ka-a-ša-at ma-a-an SÍG HA-ZE-IR [-TU

14 [ma-a-an] SIG SA5 ka-a-ša-at ma-a-an SÍG [

15 ma-a-an SÍG ka-a-ša-at ma-a-an UDU [

16 ma-a-an KAŠ GEŠTIN wa-al-hi GA.KU7 [

_____________________________________________________

17 nu-kán a-pu-u-un GÍG-an UKÚ-an LUGAL [

18 ku-u-un-na-kán DINGIRLIM DIš-ha-ra [

______________________________________________________

19 nam-ma ki-iš-ša-an [me-ma-i

20 kar-tim-mi-ia-nu-ua [

21 ú-da-u nu-uš-ši-kán [

22 nu-kán ku-u-un UKÚ-an

Vs. I

2 Furthermore, to the goddess before in this way [

3 the people who is sick [

4 calls and says like that: Here, look at! [

5 tells to the angry Goddess: Here, look at!

6 If anyone from the desire [

7 I brought offering to the Goddess. If [

8 If it is silver, here! If it is black iron, [here!

9 If it is tin, here! If it is iron, here!

10 If it is copper, here! If it is lapizlazuli, he[re!

11 If it is stone, here! If it is šamu-x, [here!

12 If it is lead, here! [

_______________________________________________

13 If it is blue wool, here! If it is is green wool, [here!

14 If it is red wool, here! If it is …. Wool, [here!

15 If it is wool, here! If it is sheep, [here!

16 If they are beer, wine, walhi, sweet milk [….., here !

_______________________________________________

17 And the king him, the sick people [

18 Goddess Išhara this [

_______________________________________________

19 Furthermore, he/she says like that: [

20 Anger [

21 brings! And him/her [

22 and this people [

Another important text which points out the purificative and curebestowed effects of Goddess Išhara is Ammihatna ritual63. In this ritual, a bread and some oil which lost their purities and their sanctities, when they soured, the menstruation blood of a woman body (ŠA MUNUS tuekki-ši ešhar), bread and oil which was laid to E.NA4 for the spirits of deaths, and the spellbound (alwanzahh(a?)) bread and oil were maden to a pure man eat. So a pure man was dirtied both psychologically and physically, and he was sickened;

KBo V 2 Vs.I

1 UM-MA m Am-mi-ha-at-na LÚ SANGA ŠA DIš-ha-a-ra

2 LÚ URUKi-iz-zu-wa-at-na

_______________________________________________

3 ma-a-an an-tu-wa-ah-ha-aš šu-up-pi nu-uš-ši NINDA-an

4 mar-ša-an ku-iš-ki a-da-an-na pa-a-i na-aš-ma-aš-ši UZU Ě

5 mar-ša-an a-da-an-na pa-a-i na-aš-ma-aš-ši NINDA-an UZUĚ

6 al-wa-an-za-ah-ha-an ku-iš-ki a-da-an-na pa-a-i

_______________________________________________

7 na-aš-ma-aš-ši ŠA É.NA4 NINDA-an UZU Ě ku-iš-ki

8 a-da-an-na pa-a-i na-aš-ma-aš-ši ŠA MUNUS tu-e-ek-ki-iš-ši

9 e-eš-har a-ku-wa-an-na pa-a-i nu ki-i SÍSKUR ši-pa-an-da-ah-hi

______________________________________________________

1-2 The Kizzuwatnian man, the priset of Goddess Išhara

(says) as follow:

________________________________________________

3 If a man is clean and to him, bad bread

4 if anyone gives to eat, or to him, bad oil

5 if anyone gives to eat, or to him, spellbound beard and oil

6 if anyone gives to eat,

_________________________________________________

7 or to him the bread (and) the oil of Stone house if anyone

8 gives to eat, or to him, of woman body

9 menstruation blood, if anyone gives to drink, and I will

offer these sacrifices.

__________________________________________________

Ammihatna who performed this ritual regarded himself as an authority to cure this illness and to purify the impurity, on occasion of carrying the tittle of Išhara-priest. Therefore he especially underlined that the sacrifices had to be offered to the gods, whom goddess Išhara also is among, in order to calm them.

In this context64, it seems that 14 numbers of Huprušhi- cult vessel65 were preaped for the ceremony. It is well-known that this kind of vessel was offered in other Kizzuwatnian Purification rituals. Seven of those vessels were offered to kupti for the male gods, as foremost Tešup; and the other seven ones to the goddesses, as foremost Hepat. In the offering ceremony of huprušhi- to kupti-, it also appears that Išhara follows Hepat, the head goddess. In the following of this ceremony, Išhara is mentioned with Allani, Niggalu, Ištar- GUL-šaš, MAH, Naparwi, Šuwaula, Aiuneundu, Šalu, Adamma Kupawa and Hašuntarhi once again; those gods also appears near Išhara in other contexts. In this ritual, it was also

prepared 14 pieces of offering tables with full of various foodstuffs; seven of them for male gods and the other seven ones for the goddesses. However, the anger of gods was calmed and they were pleased by offering gangati and thin bread;

 

KBo V 2 Vs.II

55 nu EN SÍSKUR ha-an-te-iz-zi hu-u-up-ru-uš-hi

56 EGIR-an ar-ta-ri

—————————————————————————————

57 nu ha-an-te-ez zi-in hu-up-ru-uš- hi-in

58 D IŠKUR-ni ku-up-ti ši-pa-an-ti

—————————————————————————————

……..

Rs.III

7 VIII-na KI.MIN A-N A D He-pát ši-pa-an-ti

________________________________________________________

8 IX-na KI.MIN A-NA D Iš-ha-a-ra ši-pa-an-ti

________________________________________________________

9 X-na KI.MIN A-NA D Al-la-a-ni ši-pa-an-ti

________________________________________________________

10 XI-ma KI.MIN A-NA DNi-ig-ga-lu ši-pa-an-ti

________________________________________________________

11 XII-ma KI.MIN A-NA D IŠTAR ši-pa-an-ti

________________________________________________________

12 XIII-ma KI-MIN A-NA D GUL-ša-aš D MAH ši-pa-an-ti

_______________________________________________________

13 XIV-ma hu-up-ru-uš-hi-in A-NA DNa-a-pár-wii D Šu-u-wa-u-la

14 D A-i-u-un-e-un-du D Ša-a-lu-uš pí-te-in-hi

15 D A-dam-ma DKu-pa-waa

D Ha-šu-un-tar-hi DINGIRMEŠ –na

16 i-e-ia-un-na aš-tu-uh-hi-na ši-pa-an-ti

________________________________________________________

Vs. II

55-56 And the owner of sacrifice takes place behind the first huprishivessel.

_____________________________________________________

57 And the first huprishi-vessel

58 he offers to kupti for Storm God.

______________________________________________________

Rs. III

7 The eighth one offers to Hepat in the same way.

_________________________________________________

8 The ninth one offers to Išhara in the same way.

________________________________________________

9 The tenth one offers to Allani in the same way.

__________________________________________________

10 The eleventh one offers to Niggalu in the same way.

__________________________________________________

11 The twelfth one offers to Ištar in the same way.

_______________________________________________

12 The thirteenth one offers to GUL-šaš (and) MAH in the same way.

__________________________________________________

13-16 The fourteenth one offers the huprišhi-vessel to Naparwi, Šuwaula, Aiuneundu, pitenhi Šalu, Adamma, Kupawa, Hašuntarhi and all gods. Briefly, the evidence points out that Goddess Išhara originated in Mesopotamia; that the cult of goddess firstly appeared in Northern Syria and Kizzuwatna; that Hittites transfered the cult of goddess Išhara from Northern Syria and Mesopotamia by means of Hurrians; and that Išhara was the most important goddess of Kizzuwatnian region. Furthermore the evidence also indicates that a number of attributes such as the goddess of underground, plant, mountain, river and spring, queen of oath and sexuality / propagation and the purificative goddess who provides to being purified from meladiction, sin, blood/murder/death, dirtiness and all evil things were given to this goddess. Išhara also is both illness- and cure-bestowed goddess; she is illness-bestowed goddess when she angered owing to the various causes; but if she calms down, she becomes a cure-bestowed goddess. Išhara establishes stablity in the nature including people, plants, mountains, rivers and springs, through her good attributions; but when she angers, she breaks this equilibrium, due to her negative attributes.

*Dr. Ankara University, Faculty of Letters, Deparment of Hittitology. 

1 For Išhara see; Burde 1974: 12-16; Tischler 1978: 382-384; Archi 1992: 6-10; Haas 1994: 393-405.

2 Archi 1992: 9.

3 Haas 1994: 393.

4 Haas 1994: 393.

5Kammenhuber 1968: 99-104; Haas-Wilhelm 1974: 5; Haas 1976-1980: 630 ; 1994: 17.

6Kammenhuber 1968: 102-104 ; Haas-Wilhelm 1974: 5-6, 36.

7 Murat 2002 (Unpublished dissertation)

8 Götze 1940: 59-67.

9 Haas 1994: 394.

10 Güterbock 1979: 137-142.

11 Güterbock 1946: 6.

12 Haas- Wegner 1988: 351-355.

13 Gurney 1977: 15; Burde,1974: 12-13.

14 Haas- Wegner 1988: 354-355.

15 Otten 1961: 114-157.

16Otten :1961: 134-141.

17 Haas- Wegner 1988: 81,87, 178.

18 Haas 1994: 397-398: 405-406.

19 KBo V 2 Rs. III 7-10; Murat, 2002.

20 Neu 1996: 30-54.

21 Dinçol 1969: 27-28, 33-35.

22 It is not clear the identity of god whom the priest served, but he was most probably related with goddess Ishara.

23 Murat 2007-2008: 575-585.

24 _mparatti 1979: 293-324.

25 KUB X 27 Rs.III 1-13; KUB XXXII 91 Vs. 13-16, Rs. 1-5; KBo XXIV 42 Rs.III. 3-7;

_mparatti 1979: 293-324.

26 Otten 1958: 94-95.

27 Haas- Wilhelm 1974: 116-117.

28 Otten 1958: 94-97.

29 Haas 1994: 396.

30 Archi 1992: 9.

31 Rs.IV 12-17; Oettinger 1976: 14-15,41-42.

32 KBo VI 34 Rs.III 2-23; Oettinger 1976: 41-42.

33 Haas 1994: 396.

34 Götze 1940: 59-67.

35 Goetze 1969: 199-201.

36 Neu 1996: 30-54.

37 Haas 1994: 396-397.

38 Haas 1994: 396-397.

39 Schuler 1965: 115.

40 Schuler 1965: 109-117.

41 Goetze 1969: 532.

42 Friedrich 1930: 1-41.

43 CTH 51; Weidner 1923: 28-33; Goetze 1969: 205-206.

44 CTH 53; Weidner 1923:58-60.

45 Friedrich 1930: 1-48; Goetze 1969: 203-205

46 Friedrich 1930: 42-102.

47 Goetze 1969:199-201.

48 KBo 27.155 Linke Kol.: Salvini- Wegner 1986: (Nr.92) 453 ; KUB 47.101 Rs. IV 10:

Salvini-Wegner 1986: (Nr. 93) 455-456.

49 Oettinger 1976: 41-42.

50 Oettinger 1976: 41-42.

51 Oettinger 1976: 41-42.

52 Schuler 1965: 110-111,115.

53Oettinger 1976: 41-42.

54 Otten 1958: 100-103.

55 Neu 1968: 75.

56 Otten 1958: 101; Burde 1974: 15-16.

57 Otten 1958: 101; Burde 1974: 15-16.

58 Otten 1961: 114-157.

59 Otten 1961: 132-137.

60 Burde 1974: 14.

61 CTH 487.

62 Ünal 1996: 54-55.

63 Murat 2002.

64 Murat 2002.

65 Haas-Wilhelm 1974: 103-105; Coţkun 1979: 25-33.

 

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